Цифровая экономика: краткий статистический сборник
The study of existing monitoring systems is topical, because at the present level of development the transition to information society and knowledge economy becomes one of the key elements of national strategy aimed to increase country's competitiveness in the international market. There are many index systems that study the nature of this phenomenon and compare countries by the level of digital development. To ensure objective evaluation of innovation capacity the analysis of current monitoring systems applied in measuring the development of ICT and e-readiness together with data collection was suggested.
Professional communities, the state and the public as a whole acknowledge the advantages of adopting the information and communication technologies (ICT) in the educational process, the use of Internet as a source of diverse knowledge and as a means of communication between teachers, students and their parents. The computer literacy and Internet literacy are considered to be one of the main criteria when assessing not only the educational level but also the level of the social and economic development of a country as a whole. The adoption and effective use of the novel information services, educational systems and technologies, electronic educational resources of the new generation are defined as one of the final outcomes of implementing the measures specified in the Federal Goal-oriented Education Development Programme for the period of 2011-2015 (hereinafter referred to as the Programme). Basing on the data of Monitoring of education markets and organizations and the federal statistical surveys authors analyze the ICT usage in the professional education system, the level of e-skills f students and teachers, the digital inequality of educational institutions by education levels and by the regions of the Russian Federation. This allows to specify the problems of adopting novel technologies in education. The information bulletin presents the methodological approaches applied in studying the ICT usage in the professional education and its data base. An economic and statistical analysis of the main indicators is also given. The system of indicators that was designed for the purpose of conducting a detailed survey covers the most important directions of research: availability and quality of ICT equipment, Internet access, software; the ICT usingby teachers and students; distant educational technologies; using of a website for presenting information on the educational and financial activities of an institution. In accordance with the priority direction of the state policy in the field of professional education, that is its quality increasing, the most important outcomes of the ICT usage by educational institutions must be: – training of citizens to be prepared for life and work in the contemporary information society by developing the necessary e-skills; – increasing the quality of training based upon the ICT usage; – increasing the accessibility of modern education including distance learning for various population groups and providing equal educational opportunities. These results can be achieved first owing to a well-developed ICT infrastructure, the adoption of novel ICT based means and forms of instruction in the educational process, a high level of e-skills of students and teachers. In order to assess the course of the implementation of state policy measures in this sphere the main directions of the statistical survey of the ICT application in the professional education were specified as follows: – availability educational institutions with modern ICT equipment, Internet access, and software; – the ICT using by students and teachers; – implementing novel educational methods and forms that are designed based upon the ICT; – assessing the barriers to the ICT usage. The results of the analysis show that the ICT have occupied a strong position in the educational and administrative activities of professional education institutions. Yet the task of development of the ICT infrastructure is still topical (as the availability of modern ICT in institutions is significantly lower than that in the countries with a well-developed ICT infrastructure, as the gap of availability of PCs and Internet access for students is still considerably by the regions of the Russian Federation and types of educational institutions. The assessments of the level of the ICT accessibility and quality given by the institutions’ management also confirm that it is yet early to say that the formation of the ICT infrastructure in the professional education system have been completed. It is necessary to realize that implementing the ICT is not a one-time campaign. The need to improve the technical infrastructure is stipulated not only by the level of its current condition but also by the ICT as such due to their dynamic development and the emergence of novel forms and possibilities of their usage.
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.