Национальный отчет «Глобальный мониторинг предпринимательства. Россия 2016»
In this paper, an analysis of the impact of institutional factors on the early-stage business survival based on of 76 countries participating in the GEM project (The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor - Global Entrepreneurship Monitor) in the period from 2002 to 2012.
The study is based on the GEM Russia Adult Population Survey (APS) 2006-2009 data sets. The APS survey in Russia is steadily based on the nationwide, multi-stage, stratified and probability sample (N=2000) that represents the entire adult population older than 18 years. The sample design is based on the Census 2002 data revised by the data of Rosstat (Russian Government Statistical Committee) on January 1st, 2009. To collect data, face-to-face interviewing is used. GEM estimates the level of involvement in early-stage entrepreneurial activity by calculating the sum of nascent entrepreneurs and new business owners. The GEM methodology is briefly characterized on the project website (www.gemconsortium.org).
The crisis in Russia lead to an increase of the role of economic reasons of business discontinuation, but most of former entrepreneurs who discontinued a business from economic reasons will in mid-term perspective try to (re)start anew, in contrast to those who would never try it once more; most of the latter group are escaping from other than economic reasons. They would hardly re-start again under any macroeconomic conditions. From this point of view, the crisis influenced the entrepreneurial potential only temporary.
Meanwhile, this temporary effect was rather strong - the intensity of business discontinuation under the crisis grew compared with previous years, and the difference between entries and exits became negative.
Persons with entrepreneurial past, who quit a business forever, form a ‘big loss’ of entrepreneurial potential because of their experience and skills. The factors which play a role in deciding whether to (re)start again or not, are gender and education: men and persons with higher education are more often considering a possible entrepreneurial comeback, while women and respondents with lower level of education tend more often to escape from business definitively.
Besides, there are subjective factors - negative perceptions of opportunities to do a business and low self-efficacy - which play an important role preventing a significant part of former entrepreneurs to start up anew.
The crisis have had a negative impact on the motivation to start-up among non-entrepreneurial part of population; however, the share of necessity driven should didn’t become higher than the share of opportunity driven potential entrepreneurs – maybe, because of a relatively moderate impact of the crisis on the situation on labour market.
The crisis in Russia did lead neither to a deterioration of motivational structure of early entrepreneurship nor to any dramatic increase of those who entirely resigned as entrepreneurs. That is why efficient government policy to promote entrepreneurship should encourage adults both to start-ups by promoting skills and self-efficacy (to increase the share of opportunity entrepreneurs) as well as to ease the process of closing down inefficient existing businesses.
The paper considers the financial choice of entrepreneurs at their initial stage of development as a key criterion of a new firm potential riskiness. The main objective of the research is the methodology elaboration aimed at the numerical estimation of the role of informal financial resources involved in the small business creation. Two fundamental considerations have been tested. The former implies that informal investment is a substitution for unavailable formal sources, including venture capital (because of the lack of essential networks and connections with business associations). The latter performs the opposite concept of negative effects: economic reasoning discouragement and inefficient resources allocation. A special technique is introduced in order to measure the credit quality of early entrepreneurial activity and to estimate its contingency with the financial strategy. The methodology validation is realised under Global Entrepreneurship Monitor conceptual framework. The results are received for 42 countries in 2006-2007, depicting the influence of informal support on potential losses under the second consideration. As a result, informal investments are inefficient when the concentration of credit risk in the economy is rather high. Investorsђ expectations about the entrepreneurial growth of the firm are pessimistic, anticipated returns on investments are too low to be economically reasonable. The outcome leads to the irrecoverable losses, both financial (short-received profitability) and nonfinancial (decreased output, the lack of innovativeness, flexibility, and inventiveness).
Analysis of entrepreneurail activity, perceived opportunities for a business, motivational structure and funding sources of ealry entrepreneurship as well as of reasons and results of discontinuation of a business, based on the GEM 2009 data.
The participation of a Russian team in the GEM Consortium made it possible to collect data for Russia on the level of development and the structure of entrepreneurial potential that are comparable to analogous indicators in other countries participating in the GEM. (It should be noted that in 2006 and in 2007 the GEM was based on analysis of survey results from 42 countries, with a total sample of more than 170600 people.). Entrepreneurship is taken to mean any attempt to create a new enterprise or business, including self-employment, the creation of a new entrepreneurial structure or the expansion of a pre-existing business, undertaken by an individual, a group of individuals or an existing business structure.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
портовый менеджмент, показатели деятельности, анализ эффективности, система учета, распределение издержек, методы анализа деятельности портовой системы
At present many industries reveal tendency for setting up of vertically integrated companies (VIC) the structure of which unites all technological processes. This tendency proved its efficiency in oil industry where coordination of all successive stages of technological process, namely, oil prospecting and production -oil transportation - oil processing - oil chemistry - oil products and oil chemicals marketing, is necessary. The article considers specific features of introduction of "personnel management" module at enterprises of oil and gas industry.
vertically integrated companies; personnel management