Развитие отрасли информационных технологий за последние 10 лет
The Center for Business Tendency Studies of the Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge, National Research University Higher School of Economics, presents an informational overview reflecting the trends in the activity of distance selling in the regions of the country, formed at the end of the second quarter of 2020 amid shock events caused by COVID-19. At the same time, a representative picture of the state of the digital climate of Russian IT companies engaged in the development of digital solutions in the field of e-commerce technologies in the final development dynamics for 2019 is presented. The results of regular business tendency monitoring of heads of retail organizations for the II quarter of 2019 and 2020, representing the average share of distance selling, were used as an empirical basis for measuring distance selling activity in the regional context. The data used are based on surveys of about 5 thousand heads of trade organizations in almost all constituent entities of the Russian Federation, conducted on a quarterly basis by the Federal State Statistics Service. Diagnostics of the digital climate of IT companies was based on the results of pilot business surveys of about 100 specially selected organizations from 30 regions of Russia, the areas of activity of which include developments in the field of e-commerce, annually conducted by the ANO IIC "Statistics of Russia" commissioned by the Center for Business Studies ISSEK NRU HSE. The results of both surveys involved are based on samples that are representative across all observation units, multidimensional, stratified, and representative for the main parameters of the Russian economy.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.