Чингизово право: Правовое наследие Монгольской империи в тюрко-татарских ханствах и государствах Центральной Азии (Средние века и Новое время)
Article devoted to analysis the role and significance of Tatar-born Russian officials in gathering information about state and law of the Central Asian khanates – Bukhara, Khiva, Khoqand in the 18th-19th cc. on the examples of M.Bekchurin, M.Aitov and I.Batyrshin. All of them served as officials of the Orenburg Frontier Commission, two of them were diplomats in Bukhara and Khiva, last one contacted with informers from abovementioned khanates. The common feature for them was that they were Turks and Moslems. Firstly that fact provided Central Asian population’s sympathies to them (including favor of representatives of the ruling elites of the khanates) and gave an opportunity to gather more useful information. Secondly, as representatives of the Turkic-Islamic culture they could better understand and estimate the level of political and legal development of the Central Asian khanates and prepare impartial reports for their chiefs. Also it’s necessary to notice that their affiliation with Turkic-Islamic world didn’t influence on quality of fulfillment of missions by such officials: they tried all ways to contribute to realization of the Russian policy in the Central Asia and advance of the Russian Empire in this region.
There are potentialities of using of M.A. Usmanov’s methods (developed for research of official acts of the the Golden Horde and its successors) conformably to study of legal acts of Central Asian khanates of 16th – beginning of 20th cc. are examined in this article. Author analyzes historiography of study of Central Asian legal acts, reveals several mistakes made by previous scholars, clarifies opportunities of applying of M.A. Usmanov’s methods to meet lacks and remove stereotypes about law of Central Asian khanates which were made before. Using of M.A. Usmanov’s methods, in particular, allows us to observe the succession of legal development of late medieval Central Asian khanates from the Mongol Empire, Golden Horde and other imperial states of Chinggisids, reveal co-relation of Islamic and Chinggisid (“khans”) law in these states, saving in it of Mongolian imperial legal institutions, principles and regulations.
The collected abstracts of International Academic Conference “Chinggis Khaan and Globalization” devoted to the 850th anniversary of Chinggis Khan.
Article devoted to analysis of political activity of Uzbek khan Muhammad Sheybany and Crimean khan Muhammad Girey I at the beginning of the 16th c. Author examines politics of two khans using historical-legal approach and concentrated on analysis of administrative system established by both monarchs, their relations with other rulers of former Golden Horde territories. As a result, he concludes that both khans positioned themselves as legitimate heirs and successors of the disintegrated Golden Horde and attempted to restore this state as they were not satisfied by control of certain regions of the former empire. Despite the fact that Muhammad Sheybany acted from the east of the Juchid Empire and Muhammad Girey from the West, both used the same political and legal methods to take under own control former possessions of Juchids including central regions of the Golden Horde – Volga and Ural ones. Although they declared restoration of the former empire, we shouldn’t consider their activity as attempts to “throwback”: both leaders understood clearly that political situation and legal system were changed and tried to construct their power in accordance with new realities. It was reflected, in particular, in forming the system of vassalage instead centralized imperial state, co-rule (elder and younger khans), appealing to Mohammedan political and legal principles to legitimate khan’s power, etc. But it seems that finally just effective activity of Muhammad Sheybany and Muhammad Girey I caused the opposition of powerful political forces against them – interior as well as foreign ones. As a result, both khans were killed while were at the peak of their power, and since that tiem Juchids had to give up the dream of restoration of the Golden Horde.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/