Динамика расходов семей на дошкольное образование, присмотр и уход
It is well-known that communication is the main source and necessity of human development and activity. It promotes social relationships, self-image and a wide range of cognitive and non-cognitive skills. Preschoolers communicate both with their peers and adults. It is traditionally assumed that peer communication greatly depends on the teacher-child interaction, leading role of the adult, and the child’s own activity, which are the main elements of the Russian preprimary education system.
Changes in social situations, reductions in available play time, greater engagement of children in activities and many other factors can affect modern preschoolers’ peer communication. Therefore, the effect of teacher-directed and child-directed teacherchild interactions on preschoolers’ peer communication important to study.
The following methods were applied: peer-communication observation, the behavioral tests ‘Magic room’ and ‘Mosaic’, and the sociometric procedure ‘Two houses’. The sample included 49 Moscow preprimary students aged 4 to 6 year old (25 girls and 24 boys).
The research proved that preschoolers showed better results in child-directed interactions, such as playing skills, compared with a similar situation in which the children were directed by the teachers. Additionally, the level of proactiveness, communication success, conflict resolution, prosocial behavior and emotional response to peer influence did not differ among children.
Thus, the child-directed approach is more beneficial to preschoolers’ communication development than a teacher-directed approach.
This article explores opportunities in using performance-based contracting as a tool for internal recruitment and a means of solving problems that preschool educational institutions face in their development. Kindergarten staff underwent little change for decades. Sociological surveys revealed the first shifts in the motivation of preschool teachers after some large-scale salary increase measures in education were undertaken. According to the Monitoring of Education Markets and Organizations, only 60% of preschool teachers wanted to continue working for their institutions in 2007–2011, while 40% felt like changing their jobs. In 2016, 78% of kindergarten teachers did not want to quit: they had new incentives and an interest in professional growth, their work had become more creative, and interest in work had come to the fore. The findings give reason for considering further support of the salary reform feasible in order to change the nature of preschool teaching as a strategic vector of development in this education sector. As the course of the preschool teacher salary reform has been analyzed and the major trends in changes in institutions that applied performance-based contracting in 2012–2016 have been identified, the conclusion is made that further implementation of performance-based contracts is possible provided that performance criteria recommended “from above” are specified wisely at the level of individual educational institutions and adjusted to kindergarten-specific development strategies. Personnel policies are becoming a resource in the transformation of preschool education content and its orientation towards the development of 21st-century skills.
The recent years have seen pre-school become part of general education. This change has been enshrined in law and is reflected in the way pre-school departments in primary schools are organized and financed. The wellbeing of preschool departments in territorial educational complexes depends on the number of parents involved. What remains to be seen however, is the priorities they have. Do they perceive early childhood education as part and parcel of general education? Do they really need pre-school education, and what exactly do they expect to get from it? Research into parental needs showed that most parents choose a pre-school department solely on the consideration of its convenient location. They see care and supervision as being the main goal of pre-school education. Parents’ satisfaction is associated with the friendly and individualized attitude the teacher displays towards a child. Three groups of parents were identified in terms of choices, objectives and satisfaction factors.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.