Strengthening health systems: Global forum update on research for health
The Handbook of Research on Innovative Techniques, Trends, and Analysis for Optimized Research Methods is a comprehensive reference source focused on the latest research methods currently facing educational technology and learners. While highlighting the innovative trends and methods, readers will learn valuable ways to conduct research and advance the understanding of ideas based on the results of their research. This publication is an important asset for teachers, researchers, practitioners, and graduate students looking to gain more knowledge on research trends and their applications.
The article deals with a very recent phenomenon – the three communities of Orthodox Old Believers that appeared in the Republic of Uganda in the 1990s. This faith originated in Russia, but in Uganda all its adherents belong to the native ethnic groups and converted to Old Believers from other religions in adulthood. The general description of the Ugandan Old Believer communities is based on field evidence collected in 2017 by the expedition of the Institute for African Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences – 125 questionnaires, 34 structured interviews, hundreds of photo and video records.
The paper introduces an analysis of the academic publications as a key indicator of the sociologist’s professional culture. The results of the empirical study that includes a comparative survey of 1829 research articles from top Russian and international sociological journals are presented. Based on quantitative indicators, the empirical evidence of the Russian sociological culture’s considerable lagging behind compared to international standards, was demonstrated. The most obvious gaps are observed in such areas as the structure of research articles; their theoretical and methodological background; diversity and transparency of research methods; sampling; and using of advanced methods of statistical data analysis. It is emphasized that Russian sociologists drop out from modern international trends for non-survey methods of data collection, and the language of Russian sociology is highly «normative» and ideologically-biased. The author concludes that the crisis in Russian sociology is mainly an endogenous process that can be described in terms of a «vicious circle of lack of professionalism».
The authors examine the training of masters in accordance with the standards of the third generation as one of the possible directions of development of innovative capacity of Russian universities. To meet the expectations associated with the creation and implementation of new courses , the need for interdisciplinary integration within the project teams , bringing together carriers specialized competencies. Focus articles - experience and results of a project team involved in the development of educational and methodological support of the course " Research Methods in Management" .
Immunization is one of the most significant achievements of public health over the last 100 years. Recently, however, people have been increasingly refusing to vaccinate. There are a large number of separate studies on how pervasive this behavior is and what factors influence it, but no systematic review has been undertaken so far that looked at these studies as a whole. To conduct an analysis of studies that examine vaccine refusal and negative attitudes towards vaccination, focusing on the methodological approaches to the study of these problems and evaluation of their quality. A systematic review of English-language studies published between 1980 and 2015, using the Web of Science™ Core Collection database. The final review dealt with 31 papers. The studies in question were mainly conducted in North America and Western Europe. They were published three years after conclusion, on average. We have identified five different approaches to the study of these problems: 1) studies of parents’ attitudes and behavior; 2) analysis of vaccination records; 3) studies of attitudes and behavior among the general population; 4) studies of medical professionals’ attitudes, behavior, and experience; and 5) others. We found that theoretical models were not commonly used at the planning stage, while the studies also lacked a common approach to the operationalization of vaccine refusal, as well as of negative attitudes towards vaccination. Several promising directions have been identified for future studies on vaccine refusal and negative attitudes towards vaccination.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.