### Book

## Lobachevsky Universitas/ Вселенная Лобачевского

The publication is dedicated to Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky (1792-1856) — a great Russian mathematician, creator of non-Euclidean geometry, a native of Nizhny Novgorod. The basis of the illustrated album is provided by copies of archival materials relating to the biographies of N.I. Lobachevsky and his contemporaries. The publication is timed to celebrate the centennial (2016) of Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod — one of the leading Russian universities which has been bearing the name of this outstanding scientist, teacher and organizer of science since 1956. The book is intended for a wide readership.

Let M be a compact hyperkähler manifold with maximal holonomy (IHS). The group H2(M,ℝ) is equipped with a quadratic form of signature (3,b2−3)(3,b2−3), called Bogomolov–Beauville–Fujiki form. This form restricted to the rational Hodge lattice H1,1(M,ℚ)has signature (1, k). This gives a hyperbolic Riemannian metric on the projectivization H of the positive cone in H1,1(M,ℚ). Torelli theorem implies that the Hodge monodromy group Γ acts on H with finite covolume, giving a hyperbolic orbifold X=H/Γ. We show that there are finitely many geodesic hypersurfaces, which cut X into finitely many polyhedral pieces in such a way that each of these pieces is isometric to a quotient P(M′)/Aut(M′), where P(M′) is the projectivization of the ample cone of a birational model M′ of M, and Aut(M′) the group of its holomorphic automorphisms. This is used to prove the existence of nef isotropic line bundles on a hyperkähler birational model of a simple hyperkähler manifold of Picard number at least 5 and also illustrates the fact that an IHS manifold has only finitely many birational models up to isomorphism (cf. Markman and Yoshioka in Int. Math. Res. Not. 2015(24), 13563–13574, 2015).

Neither general relativity (which revealed that gravity is merely manifestation of the non-Euclidean geometry of spacetime) nor modern cosmology would have been possible without the almost simultaneous and independent discovery of non-Euclidean geometry in the 19th century by three great mathematicians - Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky, János Bolyai and Carl Friedrich Gauss (whose ideas were later further developed by Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann).This volume contains three works by Lobachevsky on the foundations of geometry and non-Euclidean geometry: "Geometry", "Geometrical investigations on the theory of parallel lines" and "Pangeometry". It will be of interest not only to experts and students in mathematics, physics, history and philosophy of science, but also to anyone who is not intimidated by the magnitude of one of the greatest discoveries of our civilization and would attempt to follow (and learn from) Lobachevsky's line of thought, helpfully illustrated by over 130 figures, that led him to the discovery.

This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.

Neither general relativity (which revealed that gravity is merely manifestation of the non-Euclidean geometry of spacetime) nor modern cosmology would have been possible without the almost simultaneous and independent discovery of non-Euclidean geometry in the 19th century by three great mathematicians - Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky, János Bolyai and Carl Friedrich Gauss (whose ideas were later further developed by Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann).This volume contains three works by Lobachevsky on the foundations of geometry and non-Euclidean geometry: "Geometry", "Geometrical investigations on the theory of parallel lines" and "Pangeometry". It will be of interest not only to experts and students in mathematics, physics, history and philosophy of science, but also to anyone who is not intimidated by the magnitude of one of the greatest discoveries of our civilization and would attempt to follow (and learn from) Lobachevsky's line of thought, helpfully illustrated by over 130 figures, that led him to the discovery. The first English translation.

We study perturbations of the maximal stable state in a sandpile model on the set of faces of the heptagonal tiling on the hyperbolic plane. An explicit description for relaxations of such states is given.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.