Ролевая структура детско-родительских отношений
The article considers the study of native and foreign authors on the issue of role interaction of family members. Taking into account the existing works in the field of family psychology, the authors have developed the definitions of parent and child functional roles, compensating the lack of theoretical knowledge in this field of knowledge. Based on the created concept of role structure of child-parent interaction, psychodiagnostic techniques "Social family roles " and " Social roles of a child " were constructed and tested. The article presents the results of a study on the definition of the relation of young girls for their future parental roles and the roles of their unborn child as a constituent part of a reflexive cognitive content of psychological readiness for parenthood. The analysis of the data revealed the characteristic features of the structure images of girls’ future parental roles and their ideas about the roles of their unborn child. The authors have developed an instrument for measuring the role structure of parent-child relationships, that can be recommended for professionals involved in family issues and preparing young people for family life and parenthood .
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.