Neuroscience and The Economics of Decision Making
Analytical justification of solutions using a decision support system (DSS) significantly increases the quality of decisions. The existing DSS generally employs 1 or 2 methods of decision-making. It does not always lead to the desired results, as each method is based on certain assumptions and is not universal. The maximum effect can be achieved only insofar a set of decision-making methods is included into the knowledge base of the DSS. The only system that meets these requirements is the Expert Decision Support System (EDSS) developed under supervision of the author. Currently the EDSS includes about 50 decision-making methods. The expansion of the EDSS knowledge base by including new methods will allow for choosing the most suitable method for solving each decision-making task. Enhancing the Decision Table model underlying the system knowledge base allows you to develop the EDSS without complete reworking of the system code. The system knowledge base contains decision rules built on the principle of “if... then...” (if certain conditions of decision making exist, then a definite method of decision-making should be employed). To expand the EDSS knowledge base, ELECTRE collection methods were selected. Their key feature consists in not using the convolution operation of evaluation of the alternatives specified in different scales on individual criteria. This was the reason for selecting the methods of this family. In the article, the algorithms of these methods are adapted for their inclusion in the EDSS. An algorithm for obtaining a criterion-alternative matrix is proposed. It serves as input information for the ELECTRE family methods in cases where there is no objective information for its formation. The results of the study can be used to develop the EDSS, allowing analytical justification of solutions using methods that have not previously been used in the system.
This article presents a study of the regulatory role of emotional intelligence in decision-making in real-life situations and of the functioning of intellectual and personal potential using Emotional Anticipation Method (EAM). Expert psychologists used quality analysis techniques to develop a typology of the content characteristics of choices on a sample of military instructors (N = 79). It is important to note that our selective sample included professionals involved in actual professional activity, who are well aware of the consequences of using or ignoring emotional information in their professional activity. Characteristics of emotional intelligence (EI) and tolerance to ambiguity in the system of predictors of personal choice were considered. The hypothesis of discrepancy between the data obtained using objective measurements and EI questionnaires was confirmed. The results show difference between dispositional and situational con- texts of inclusion of EI in the regulation of choices. For each task, we obtained proofs that subjects non-randomly selected one of the proposed alternatives and their choice was the closest to their personal solution. This allows us to consider alternatives designed as having high ecological validity. It was found that in the final answer, the use of illustrative tips led to an increase in the number of choices that minimise uncertainty in a given emotional context. Emotional intelligence serves as a prerequisite for effective use of illustrative tips. EAM procedure can be regarded as an indirect diagnostic tool for evaluation of certain aspects of emotional intelligence.
The Chapter on Russia deals with the particularities of decision-making methodology used by the Supreme Court of Russia, in comparison with that of the US Supreme Court. It offers an overview of the Russian Supreme Court jurisdiction, justiciability and standing and the main issues arising in these areas.
SfN is an unmatched venue for sharing great science. Attendees can take advantage of countless opportunities to share and learn about emerging and unpublished findings, explore career paths and professional development opportunities, and discuss hot topics in scientific publishing, academia, advocacy, public education, and more. 2013 events include:Major featured and special lectures by world-renowned scientists from around the globe More than 15,000 abstracts sharing new findings More than 50 symposia and minisymposia with comprehensive coverage of vital neuroscience research topics Nearly 600 exhibitors showcasing new tools, technologies, and publishing opportunities Dozens of professional development, advocacy, and networking events Selection of more than 100 satellite events being held in conjunction with the annual meeting.
Abstract of 8th Forum of European Neurosciences. Barselona.
This chapter examines the neurophysiological plausibility of some of the claims of Construction Grammar with regard to syntactic structures. It suggests that evidence from neuroscience has highly important repercussions for linguistic theory building in general and argues that the constructionist enterprise receives considerable empirical support from neurolinguistic studies. The chapter examines views on the embodiment of grammar in neuronal circuitry and contends that neurological evidence indicates that it makes sense to postulate flexible constructional templates as distinct from lexical construction storage.
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. Conference Abstract: 41st European Brain and Behaviour Society Meeting