The Oxford Companion to Emotion and the Affective Sciences
This paper considers the ways in which Leon Petrażycki and Eugen Ehrlich employed the psychological notion of emotions in defining the law. Both scholars defined the law by referring to special kinds of emotions: bilateral emotions in Petrażycki’s conception and repulsive emotions of experiencing the wrong behavior of other people, according to Ehrlich’s legal sociology. On the basis of a comparison between the theories of Petrażycki and Ehrlich, the author asserts that both theories hinge on similar methodologies and philosophies. This approach has evident affinities with the conception of law developed by Axel Hägerström and other Scandinavian realists. This analysis suggests a parallel in the development of the realist, sociological and psychological approaches to the law in the first decades of the twentieth century, uncovering certain trends in legal scholarship that underpinned this development.
The article is devoted to the analysis of the Durkheim’s “The Division of Labor in Society” in the case of the sociology of emotions. Social solidarity problem is one of the fundamental problems of sociology. There is an opinion that it is impossible to resolve the social solidarity problem excluding emotions. “The Division of Labor in Society” is one of the main works in the field of social solidarity. Durkheim considered and characterized types of social solidarity. But in contemporary science, the authors prefer “The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life” for the analysis. It makes an omission in the study of origins of the sociology of emotions and the role of emotions in maintaining social solidarity. Durkheim’s ideas have rethinking and reflection in the work of the contemporary sociologists of emotions. The article demonstrates current authors rely on their arguments on the Durkheim’s ideas. The aims of the paper are to identify background of the sociology of emotions in “The Division of Labor in Society”, to present how Durkheim determined the social nature of emotions, their role in the description of the social solidarity types, what types of emotions are involved in creating social ties from the position of Durkheim. With the help of Durkheim’s ideas, we can identify the outlines for solving the problem of social solidarity.
We can make a conclusion that the role of emotion in the maintaining of social solidarity changes with the change of the social solidarity types in the Durkheim’s concept. Mechanical solidarity is based on common ideas, feelings; the individual is completely absorbed by the collective. Crimes arouse negative emotions such as anger, revenge, and shame, which are become instruments of protection. Sympathy exists only in the institutions of family and marriage. In opposition, organic solidarity is based on the division of social labor; the collective is replaced by the individual. As a result of changing social solidarity type, the positive emotions participate in its reproduction: altruism, sympathy, that going beyond the family and friendship and appearing in the labor relations, happiness. In the Durkheim’s concept emotions have to be common and collective for the reproduction of social solidarity. Kind of specific emotions doesn’t very important. Social solidarity can be destroyed by the loss of the collective nature of emotions. In conclusion, Durkheim’s ideas can be relevant for contemporary society and can be the basis for further development of the solution of the problem of social solidarity in the field of the sociology of emotions.
Activation of the limbic structures, and above all the amygdala, is believed to be evidence of a subjective emotional experience. However, a recent paper published by Boubela and colleagues (Boubela et al, 2015) discredits most of the fMRI research concerning BOLD-signal changes in the amygdala region. It was revealed that the BOLD signal increase during perception of affective stimuli might take its origin not from the grey matter itself, but from a large vessel situated near the amygdala: the basal vein of Rothental. In the present research, we attempted to estimate the contribution of veins and venules located near amygdala into BOLD signal changes from the region of interest. We found no systematic increase of BOLD signal in the group of veins within the region of interest in comparison with the BOLD signal in the actual gray matter of the amygdala. At the same time, correlations were found between the BOLD signal in the vessels and the gray matter. The obtained results allow us to interpret the BOLD signal from veins and venules in the region of interest as non systematic noise capable of masking or weakening the observed experimental effects. The method used in this work can be recommended for further fMRI studies of the amygdala.
In this chapter, I argue that the Durkheimian theory of the sacred is a crucial yet not fully recognized resource for cognitive sociology. It contains not only a theory of culture (which is acknowledged in contemporary sociology), but also a vision of culture-cognition relations. Thus, Durkheimian cultural sociology allows us to understand the crucial role the sacred/profane opposition plays in structuring culture, perception and thought. Based on a number of theories, I also show how another opposition – between the pure and impure modes of the sacred, allows us to explain dynamic features of the sacred and eventually provides a basic model of social change. While explicating this vision and resultant opportunities for sociological analysis I also criticize ‘cognition apart from culture’ approaches established within cognitive sociology. I argue, thus, that culture not only participates in cognition but is an intrinsic ingredient of the human mind. Culture is not a chaotic and fragmented set of elements, as some sociologists imply to a greater or lesser degree, but a system; and as such it is an inner environment for human thought and social action. This system, however, is governed not by formal logic, as some critics of the autonomy of culture presuppose, but by concrete configurations of emotionally-charged categories, created and re-created in social interactions.
The role of emotions in social movements and mobilization has been an important focus of recent research, but the emotional mechanisms producing apathy and non-participation remain under studied. This article explores the thinking and feeling processes involved in the production of apolitical attitudes, paying particular attention to their social and cultural context. Cultural norms of appropriateness and emotional expression can hinder or boost the emotions involved in the mobilizing processes. Based on 60 interviews with young people in two Russian cities, collected during and in the aftermath of the anti-regime protests of 2011–12, I explore the apathy syndrome—a combination of emotional mechanisms and cultural norms that produce political apathy. Personal frustrating experiences develop into long-term cynicism and disbelief in the efficacy of collective action, a process exacerbated by the transmission of apathy in families and educational institutions, as well as by cultural norms of appropriate emotions. Cultural clichés and dissociation from others help people cope with the trap and justify inaction.
This study explores the hypothesis that language of testing and mood states can influence creativity in bilinguals. Arabic-English bilingual speakers were induced into positive or negative mood states using film clips and recall-of-events procedures. Then, participants’ creativity was assessed with the Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults. Participants were tested in either English or Arabic. A Picture Naming Test revealed English as participants’ stronger language and Arabic as their weaker language. Testing in English was found to enhance verbal fluency and originality, as compared to testing in Arabic. Most importantly, an interactive effect of induction (positive, negative) and language of testing (English, Arabic) on creativity emerged. The results revealed two conditions beneficial for participants’ nonverbal originality: a positive mood state when tested in English and a negative mood state when tested in Arabic. These results are discussed in light of the interactive effect of mood induction and linguistic context (stronger vs. weaker) on an individual’s creativity.