Cultural values and development in Uganda. NIRP Research for Policy Series Part 5
The paper gives an analysis of the metaphors of old age that are well-established in German culture. The aim of the study is an empirical analysis of how old age is represented in the German language, reflecting the attitudes of society to old age.
The material for the study was a selection of aphoristic and proverbal text fragments that include the lexeme Alter (hohes Alter).
The methodological basis of the study is the cognitive theory of metaphor of G. Lakoff and M. Johnson, who argue that metaphors are not limited to the sphere of language and that the processes of human thinking themselves are metaphorical.
The study also relies on metaphorical modeling, a theory which makes it possible to identify a system of metaphorical models in the discourse of old age, reflecting the attitude of members of society towards this discourse and its participants, forming a linguistic picture of the world.
The analysis identified several metaphorical models; the most popular is the time cycle model (daily cycle, annual cycle), which represent old age as the evening or autumn of life – the time to prepare for the end of the cycle: winter/night is the time of death, when all life in nature freezes, “falls asleep”.
Old age is personified as an evil tyrant, robbing an elderly person of external beauty, energy, sometimes even clarity of thoughts.
The natural metaphorical model proclaims the physical and mental functionality and attractiveness of old age: an old person is compared with natural phenomena (gray hair – foam after a big storm at sea).
The architectural model represents old age as a building (a prison with the semantics of involuntary alienation from life, limiting the possibilities of movement and communication) or as its element (a balcony, which makes it possible to see wide surroundings and to evaluate what is happening).
The semantics of metaphors include an emotional assessment of old age. The high degree of influence of the considered metaphors on the opinions and beliefs of society necessitate further study of the metaphors themselves and the discourses of their functioning.
Models of business cultures proposed by G.Hofstede and F.Trompenaars - Ch.HampdenTurner are widely used in cross-cultural management. At the same time, many researchers using the findings of cross-cultural comparisons obtained with the framework of the models, treat the basic concepts related to cultural values, on the basis of authors’ or common interpretations. I argue this is a flawed approach which has to be substituted by the usage of empirical indicators underlying the models. The problem is illustrated with the value dimension of individualism – collectivism.
The article considers topical issues of foreign language teaching seen from the axiological angle of different cultures’ pedagogical paradigms and describes some typical characteristics of a number of pedagogical systems. A close attention is paid to various manifestations of the value components characteristic of various educational systems which reveal the existence of an axiological paradigm shift in teaching foreign languages.
Purpose. In 2013 and in 2014, Federal Law No. 73-FZ of 25 June 2002 “On Cultural Heritage Objects (Monuments of History and Culture) of the Nations of the Russian Federation” was amended, including, the conceptual apparatus of the cultural heritage system. The latter is divided into tangible and intangible objects; the material cultural heritage includes monuments of history and culture. Objects of cultural heritage, according to legislative definition, have a complex composite structure, which requires analysis and systematization, since at the moment this concept and related to it are used in other acts of substantive law, in particular, in the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. Objects of cultural heritage, according to legislative definition, have a complex composite structure, which requires analysis and systematization, since at the moment this concept and related to it are used in other acts of substantive law, in particular, in the Criminal Code. Methodology: analysis, synthesis, legal, structural, functional, axiological methods. Conclusions. The object of cultural heritage has the following features: the immovable nature of the cultural heritage object (and associated movable objects and archaeological objects until they are included in the Museum Fund of the Russian Federation), anthropogenic character, age and cultural value of the cultural heritage object — is of fundamental importance as the basis for assigning the object the status of an object of cultural heritage, formal status in the Unified State Register of Objects of Cultural Heritage of the Russian Federation. Scientific and practical significance. The carried out research allows to specify the concept of objects of a cultural heritage and its component parts, thus, defining, in particular, subjects of crimes and offenses that encroach on monuments of history and culture. The findings of this study can be used to create regulatory legal acts that regulate the protection of cultural heritage sites, as well as to be applied in the training process in the training of specialists in the field of criminal and administrative law.