Wandering Workers. Mores, Behavior, Way of Life, and Political Status of Domestic Russian Labor Migrants
This timely book offers a fresh perspective on the issue of contemporary migratory labor, otkhodnichestvo, in Russia-the temporary departure of inhabitants from small towns and villages for short-term jobs in the major cities of Russia. Although otkhodnichestvo is a mass phenomenon, it is not reflected in official economic statistics.
Based on numerous interviews with otkhodniks and local experts, this stunningly original work focuses on the central and northern regions of European Russia. The authors draw a social portrait of the contemporary otkhodnik and offer a sociological assessment of the economic and political status these 'wandering workers' live with.
Contemporary otkhodnichestvo is a type of labour migration which is distinguished by its temporary and returnable nature. An adult able-bodied family member temporarily leaves home to offer proactively his or her services or seek employment in other regions (areas). Nowadays, otkhodniks come mostly from small towns or rural areas to offer their services or seek jobs in major cities – regional centers and capitals, in the industrially developed areas of the country.
Certain features distinguish a classical otkhodnik from other types of labour migrants (rotation workers, shabashniks (jobbers), cross-border migrants, etc.). Generally, otkhodninks work far from home, from the place of their permanent residence; their work is of a seasonal (recurring) nature; they are self-starters and act independently; they are driven by the desire to improve their material well-being; and they have no intention to relocate their families. The above features make contemporary otkhodniks similar to typical otkhodniks of the 18th - early 20th centuries. That's why we consider that otkhodnichestvo is a sustenance pattern similar to the one which existed in Russia up to the second decade of the Soviet era.
Currently, the classical otkhodnik emerges primarily from the north of European Russia and the Urals. Those areas have sufficient natural resources that the population can largely use and independently bring to market. We believe the availability of such resources in places where the otkhodniks live was a major factor which contributed to their emergence as a special type of labour migrants.
As the otkhodniks do not participate in local social life and are practically non-existent for the local economy, they also escape the attention of municipal authorities. Moreover, they are beyond the scope of their interest. Nowhere and in no way do the municipal authorities engage with the otkhodniks; usually, the authorities are not even aware of them. In their activities, municipal bodies, just as government organizations, target primarily or exclusively people receiving income from the budget, i.e. members of the local community represented by pensioners, public-sector employees and those in need of support and custody. In the meantime, economically this is the least active part of any local community, whereas the otkhodniks and local business people are its most active and entrepreneurial part. However, neither the municipal, nor the government authorities interact with them or consider them as targets for political actions. This category of really active population seems not to exist within the competence of the authorities. In the existing type of relations with the public authorities, the phenomenon of otkhodniks seems to demonstrate the current stage of engagement between the state and its subjects which is traditional for Russia: avoid control by fleeing to the outskirts of the empire. Nowadays, its flight to the shadow niches of the economy which escaped the attention of the authorities.
The article contains results of the analysis of legal and doctrinal foundations of migration activities in the Russian Federation. Attempts to define the independent migration function of the state. The author substantiates the conclusion about the need of further development of the migration directions of state activities in the Russian Federation.
Moscow has always been a magnet attracting migrants from other regions of Russia. Recently, however, it plays an increasingly important role as the largest of Russia center of attraction for migrant flows from abroad. External migrants integrate in Moscow , transforming in the process the social, cultural, and physical dimensions of urban space. That is why the goal of this study is to explore this mutual influence between the city and the migrants from abroad living in it. How is life of migrants in Moscow organized? Are there any localities or spaces (coffee shops, restaurants, shops, etc) consistently visited by migrants? Does the 'migrant Moscow" exist", and if yes, how does it look like?
In this paper we analyse the demand for the foreign workforce in Russian regions. We use the Russian Ministry of Labour (Rostrud) data on migrant applications and the dataset on Russian firms provided by the Bureau van Dijk. We show features of the demanded migrant labour and also find that the inflow of internal migrants significantly reduces the demand for the foreign workforce. The demand for immigrants is higher in resource and economically developed regions, and in regions with low population density. Most of migrant applications were proposed by construction and manufacturing industries. Employers prefer to hire low-skilled migrants with secondary education and with work experience of 1 year. Using the econometric model, we found that main factors of the demand for immigrants are the individual characteristics of migrants (education and experience) and their professional groups. We conclude that the Russian migrant quota system doesn’t pay enough attention to features of regions’ economies.
Background. Nowadays a large part of Russian provincials are forced to leave home on regular basis to earn a living for their families by working in other regions. Despite the scale of this phenomenon, it is ignored both by the politicians and by the scientific community. We believe it is important to provide a general description of such labor migrants and outline their specific regional features. The goal of the study is to describe the regional differences of the contemporary regular forced internal labor migration (hereinafter – labor migration) and to identify the reasons underlying the diversity in the social and economic characteristics of such migrating workers (hereinafter – labor migrants). Materials and methods. The Kostroma (traditional northern center of nonagricultural seasonal labor migration) and Saratov (southern region) regions were selected for comparison. They strongly differ in what concerns the types of labor migration and labor behavior characteristics. The results are obtained by observing the labor migrants at places where they permanently reside, and on the basis of 93 detailed interviews. Results. The author evaluated the scale of labor migration in both regions; studied the labor activity specific for the labor migrants of the Kostroma and Saratov region; considered the reasons for regional differences in social and economic and motivational characteristics; identified two social types of labor migrants. Conclusions. The description of labor migration and migrants’ behavior allows identifying the existence of social types of the northern and the southern labor migrants. They differ by a variety of features, including behavior, motivation, cultural and economic aspects.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.