Культурологический и билингвальный аспекты в дополнительной профессиональной подготовке специалистов сферы туризма
The article is devoted to a new type of educational programs that are formed at the intersection of higher and secondary education. Education as an institute is seen as an instrument of social stratification of society. The authors analyze the major developments of education as an institute, for instance differentiation between of academic and vocational educational programs and the creation of programs of production a “Homo habilis” — a skilled performer. Changes in the vocational education system are considered in the light of the introduction of the new educational standards FSES 2011 (Federal State Educational Standards).
The article presents the results of a sociological survey aimed at analyzing the views of employers on current and future forms of cooperation with professional educational organizations, as well as identifying barriers that impede the development of partnership between the two institutions. The research is classified as "casestudies", in other words, it analyzes specific situations that allow to get a picture of the processes taking place in this sphere at a qualitative level, to reveal a spectrum of problems of interaction between the labor market and the system of secondary vocational education. Based on the analysis of the materials of in-depth interviews, conclusions are drawn that there are currently no effective mechanisms for integrating employers into the state vocational education system in Russia. Despite the recognition of their decisive role in the training of specialists, employers prefer to participate in the training of personnel in a passive manner, without being responsible for the results of training specialists. It is established that the interaction models offered by the STR system do not meet the personnel policy of employers. In this connection, the training of personnel in VET is considered by employers as a long-term project with high risks of non-return of investments. Presence of own successful practices of training specialists within the corporate system of personnel training also contributes to reducing the interest of employers to cooperate with state educational organizations. To change the situation, it is necessary to ensure effective communication within the framework of the subject of cooperation that brings mutual benefits. Such a subject can be a joint project, the contribution to the implementation of which from the side of the enterprise and college is commensurate with the benefits obtained.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.