Biography and Society. ISA Newsletter of RC 38
Nikolai Charushin's memoirs of his experience as a member of the revolutionary populist movement in Russia are familiar to historians, but A Generation of Revolutionaries provides a broader and more engaging look at the lives and relationships beyond these memoirs. It shows how, after years of incarceration, Charushin and friends thrived in Siberian exile, raising children and contributing to science and culture there. While Charushin's memoirs end with his return to european Russia, this sweeping biography follows this group as they engaged in Russia fin de siecle society, took part in the Russian revolution, and struggled in its aftermath. A Generation of Revolutionaries provides vibrant and deeply personal insights into the turbulent history of Russia from the Great Reforms to the era of Stalinism and beyond. In doing so, it tells the story of a remarkable circle of friends whose lives balanced love, family, and career with exile, imprisonment, and revolution.
This paper presents the findings of a research conducted in Russian and French archives which sheds new light on early life and intellectual biography of a famous philosopher and historian of science Alexandre Koyré (1892-1964). During the investigation some important details of his revolutionary activity in Russian Empire were discovered. A special attention is paid to the history of Koyré’s family and to his relation to social-revolutionary groups in Rostov-on-Don. Documents found among historical police records kept in the State Archive of the Russian Federation give a possibility to better understand a history of the police and juridical persecution of Koyré during his late scholar years in Rostov. They give also a definitive answer to the question on exact year of Koyré’s arrival in Gottingen when he became a disciple of Edmund Husserl.
Aleksei Fedorovich Malinovskii, a prominent Russian archeographer and historian, had an outstanding life trajectory. His success was based, among other factors, on the protection by his patrons. Malinovskii's handwritten work “Biographies of the Officials Who Managed Foreign Affairs in Russia” was a tribute to his patronNikolai Petrovich Rumiantsev, State Chancellor in 1807/8–1814. Having studied the drafts of this work I identified its sources. First, they were the lists of the chiefs of Posol’sky Prikaz and of the Collegium of Foreign Affairs (since 1709), and that of the state chancellors and vice-chancellors that were compiled in the 1780s in the Archive of the Collegium of Foreign Affairs in Moscow where Malinovskii was a petty official since 1780, and that he headed in 1814. The second source of the “Biographies” were draft biographies written partly in the late 18th century by his brother Vasilii Malinovsky, a Collegium’s official. In the letters written by Nikolai Karamzin to Aleksei Malinovskii one can trace the way of the “Biographies” to the emperor who favoured Malinovskii with an award; they also shed light on the concept of this compiling work and the place of “Biographies” in the political context of the late 18th – early 19th century.
Apart from the public sphere and the norms set by society, the private sphere plays an important role in the lives of the disabled, including the personal experience of disability at a micro level: in their families, everyday routines and romantic relationships. In this chapter, issues of family structure are considered using a narrative analysis of interviews with women who use wheelchairs. Various cultural, social, economic and political determinants effect the formation of certain types of family structure and attitudes towards family life. At the same time, they interrelate with biographical factors that reinforce or weaken the limits of freedom and private life. Using narrative analysis, I demonstrate what role family plays in constructing the identity of a person with a disability, and how family members act as coauthors of individual biographies. This can be seen in those dilemmas of family life associated with the feelings, sexuality and emotional stability at the micro-level of the life experience and identification of women with disabilities.
Императора Александра I, несомненно, можно назвать самой загадочной и противоречивой фигурой среди русских государей XIX столетия. Республиканец по убеждениям, он четверть века занимал российский престол. Победитель Наполеона и освободитель Европы, он вошел в историю как Александр Благословенный - однако современники, а позднее историки и писатели обвиняли его в слабости, лицемерии и других пороках, недостойных монарха. Таинственны, наконец, обстоятельства его ухода из жизни. О загадке императора Александра рассказывает в своей книге известный писатель и публицист Александр Архангельский.
Biographies are used in teaching a wide range of subjects, thus representing a universal type of material that can be valuable in a TESL classroom. The benefits of this study bear relevance to assessing writing strategies that may be used by experts in a variety of fields of inquiry. The article focuses on assessing stylistic variation in biographical texts in English, using the material of a number of highly acclaimed biographies of Sir Winston Spencer Churchill. The article contains an analysis of the conceptual and linguistic parameters of stylistic variation in biographical texts (based on modern biographies of W.S. Churchill written by authors for whom English is their first language). The study considers a number of linguistic levels: morphology and vocabulary – in connection with the kinds of inherent and adherent connotations conveyed; minor and major kinds of syntax are studied in relation to the stylistic neutrality and non-neutrality of the units under investigation. The functioning of nouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs is analyzed in order to establish the type of general conceptual characteristics the texts demonstrate. A specialized and non-emotional type of content is based on the predominance of formal, specialized connotations; an emotional and non-specialized type of content is, on the contrary, constituted by emotional, expressive and evaluative connotations. The analytic technique developed shows that there is a correlation between the conceptual characteristics of a biographical text and the kind of argumentation it contains. The specialized and non-emotional type of content correlates with arguments supported by factual data; the emotional and non-specialized type corresponds to arguments lacking references to other sources. The results of the analysis undertaken can be applied to making courses on stylistics of the English and other languages. The conclusions can be used to outline a writing strategy for professional journalists, historians, writers, politicians, economists, etc.
The article deals with the changing social contract in the era of the 90s. Combined several levels of analysis: reconstruction of the era of the 90s by methods of public opinion polls and a qualitative analysis of narratives about the era of the 90s, representatives of various social groups (workers, employees / civil servants, entrepreneurs). If public opinion polls the most important events of the era, which made up the historical memory of the generation who participated in the changes of Russian society, the narratives of the 90s contain a description of the experience and reflection of social actors regarding the limits and possibilities of this era. The conceptual framework of the study describes the concept of a social contract as a balance of expectations between its performing individuals and social institutions. The social contract is operationalized as a set of action strategies that have been implemented by individuals and are the subject of their memories in the biographical interview mode. As a result of the study, a specification was made for representatives of the above-mentioned social groups of various social contracts that have undergone devaluation and changed during the 90s.