Subjunctive Mood: Practice Book
The manual contains a collection of exercises for practising subjunctive mood compiled from grammar books by eminent Russian grammarians.
Aspects of Academic Writing is primarily designed to lead university students to success with academic writing and prepare for further study and world of work. The students are trained to organize, present and compare data, describe process, present and justify an opinion, evaluate and challenge ideas, compare and contrast evidence. The book is either focused on developing students’ academic writing skills; develops the students’ active vocabulary by practicing systems of vocabulary, such as word formation, collocation, phrasal verbs and dependent prepositions; revises and extends the students’ active knowledge of grammar through varied activities, offering opportunities for recycling, revision, evaluation and self-evaluation. Throughout the book there are examples to follow and exercises to complete, so students can easily select the particular section to practice based on their specific needs. In all, the book can be used in the classroom by teachers of English for Academic Purposes as part of a wider course. However, the book may be either used as self-study.
The book contains several chapters on Russian grammar which were prepared within the project "Rusgram" (www.rusgram.ru). They represent a corpus-oriented approach to grammatical description.
In the article, I focus on tense marking in Russian constructions with predicatives, such as xolodno ‘(it is) cold’ and ploxo ‘(it is) bad’. Statistical data from the Russian National Corpus show that the frequency of past tense forms (e.g., combinations with the form bylo) is much greater for some predicatives than for others. This difference results both from semantic and formal factors. On the one hand, some predicatives denote evaluation (e.g. ploxo ‘bad’). Evaluation can be applied to events that have finished or have never been realized. What is relevant is that the evaluation is made at the moment of speech, and this is why the present tense (= the zero copula verb) is used. On the other hand, it is important that the present tense is unmarked with predicatives, while with verbs, it is marked with special verbal affixes. The unmarked present tense form of a predicative can get the temporal meaning from the embedded verb. Interestingly, this phenomenon is in a sense opposite to the well-known phenomenon of relative tense marking. While the latter presupposes that the tense assignment in the embedded event is anchored to the tense meaning of the main event, the tense value of the construction with evaluation predicatives is assigned by ‘agreement’ with the embedded verb.
The article is focused on Russian constructions with zero copulas. I test constructions with zero copulas for compatibility with different syntactic contexts to find out whether their syntactic behavior differs significantly from that of lexical verbs. The diagnostics used in the paper include occurrence in relative and temporal clauses, compatibility with particles, and adverbials / adverbial constructions. The differences between the zero copulas and lexical verbs turn out to be of two types: a copula allows some uses, prohibited for lexical verbs, and, in contrast, is impossible in other constructions where lexical verbs can participate. The differences are due to two properties of copulas: (1) lack of morphologically-marked categories and (2) lack of a lexical stem. Different types of copulas as distinguished by Testelets (2008) behave differently in syntactic tests, but the picture cannot be reduced to Testelets’ two classes of copulas (binominative and non-binominative ones).
The paper considers the use of infinitives and subjunctive forms as modal patterns of indirect speech attested in Russian Chronicles of the XI—XVI centuries. In early texts, an infinitive in a subordinate clause describes either a speech act that must be put into practice or a situation destined to happen. Subjunctive forms are used only in citations containing requests. The illocutionary power of reported speech is regularly marked with an illocutionary verb. In later chronicles, infinitive clauses and subjunctive forms begin to alternate in modal patterns of indirect speech containing official orders. However, the modal patterns are not yet attested as a substitute of imperative mood in subordinate clauses.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.