Sustainable Housing for Sustainable Cities: Policy Framework for Developing Countries
The concept of housing requires a new understanding to effectively address the pressing issues of slums, the urban divide, economic and human development, and climate change. No longer regarded as simply a roof over one's head, housing today plays a crucial role in achieving sustainable development. Sustainable Housing for Sustainable Cities outlines key concepts and considerations underpinning the idea of sustainable housing and provides a comprehensive framework for designing sustainable housing policies and practical actions. Although sustainable housing is often considered from a predominantly green perspective this book advocates a more holistic approach, which recognises the multiple functions of housing as both a physical and socio-cultural system and which seeks to enhance and harmonise the environmental, social, cultural, and economic dimensions of housing sustainability to ensure prosperous residential neighbourhoods and equitable cities.
This article is devoted to the rent regulation problems and housing allowances in post-socialist states. Government regulations during the socialism period created a segment of mass public rental housing which could not meet the challenges of modernity after the collapses of socialism. The attempts to implement market-friendly system were not successful enough and nowadays rental housing market in these states faces many challenges. The authors analyze the scope and form of rent control in post-socialist states, make a comparison of rent control regimes in selected states and also pay attention to housing allowances in reviewed countries. In the conclusions authors emphasize the main problems of public rental housing and forecast the situation in housing system’s orientation.
UN Security Council resolutions are an important source of law for the international system of combating with money laundering and terrorist financing.
This Action Plan provides a framework for the member States of the region to raise energy efficiency in the housing sector and thus enable them to more effectively address environmental and economic challenges and meet social needs. The Action Plan lists a range of measures aimed at removing barriers to energy efficiency and progressively moving towards a low-energy and ultimately zero-energy and carbon neutral housing sector.
The Russian variant of land readjustment deals with vacant lands inside or just beyond the city border. In 2011, federal law allowed municipal authorities to provide multi-child families with free land plots. The definite size of land plots (between 0.04 – 0.15 hectares/ 0.09 -0.5 acres [5, 7]), their location, and level of infrastructure provision were under the jurisdiction of the local administration. The first implementation experience of the law showed that the land plots provided to the families were poorly located and needed an enormous amount of additional investment into infrastructure, construction of housing, etc. Moreover, the lack of financial resources pushed the families to sell their land plots at low prices; therefore, the objective of the law was not fulfilled. Because of this setback, the Federal Agency of Housing Construction Financing (AHCF) created the program of multi-child cooperatives.
The article covers principal provisions of the UN Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods Wholly or Partly by Sea. The study focuses on the specifics of acting legal regimes of liability for failing to preserve goods under carriage by sea and shows the necessity to make a uniform legal regulation. The article also shows wide boundaries for applying the new Convention compared to the apllicable one and the liability kept by the carrier for failing to preserve goods and for delaying its delivery. The difference has been given between negotiable and non-negotiable transport documents, and an electronic transport record has been described as an alternative to a «hard copy» document. The article is also supplied with considering issues of period of time for suit, jurisdiction, and arbitration.
UN Convention, regime of liability, expanding scope of action, liability for failing to preserve goods, delay in delivery, transport document, electronic transport record, period of time for suit, jurisdiction, arbitration
Democratically elected municipal government had no housing role in the Soviet era in Russia, as all housing belonged to the central state and was administered by its local agents. After 1990, a massive privatization of housing was achieved first through the transfer of stock from industrial companies to municipalities and then through no-cost transfer of ownership to the tenants. But the municipalities who lost this briefly-held housing stock to privatization now find themselves owners of 11% of all the housing in Russia: much more in some regions. Poor condition stock and the inability of the new owners to meet maintenance costs have led to a growing housing role for local authorities, who have many new responsibilities and expectations from local residents, but few resources. Although the situation has parallels in other post-socialist countries, the scale in Russia is greater, and there is no EU aid, nor any tradition either of ownership or of collective responsibility. Economic crisis in Europe and a slow down in housing construction in Russia mean that new policies for rental housing are needed. This review considers historic and recent changes in housing policy in the Russian Federation in the light of the emerging housing rôle of municipal governments. In the review we draw on national data as well an in-depth case study of the city of Perm to illustrate the impact of this transformation. Following a national meeting of housing experts in 2011, a new Government Strategy for 2020 has been established and is also discussed.
This volume intends to fill the gap in the range of publications about the post-transition social housing policy developments in Central and Eastern Europe by delivering critical evaluations about the past two decades of developments in selected countries’ social housing sectors, and showing what conditions have decisively impacted these processes.
Contributors depict the different paths the countries have taken by reviewing the policy changes, the conditions institutions work within, and the solutions that were selected to answer the housing needs of vulnerable households. They discuss whether the differences among the countries have emerged due to the time lag caused by belated reforms in selected countries, or whether any of the disparities can be attributed to differences inherited from Soviet times. Since some of the countries have recently become member states of the European Union, the volume also explores whether there were any convergence trends in the policy approaches to social housing that can be attributed to the general changes brought about by the EU accession.
The article shows that the housing policy of the new government, in addition to a pronounced housing deficit was defined by a number of other, including ideological, factors. Although the history of the communal system has its roots in the pre-revolutionary past, however, progressive disintegration of the home began in Russia after October 1917. Beginning of the destruction of "communal subculture" had to wait until the decisions of the twentieth party Congress.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.