The State of Nonprofit America, (ed.). 2d edition
In this second edition of this immensely successful volume, Lester Salamon and his colleagues offer an overview of the current state of America’s nonprofit sector, examining the forces that are shaping its future and identifying the changes that might be needed. This edition has been completely revised and updated to reflect changing political realities and the punishing economic climate currently battering the nonprofit sector, which faces significant financial challenges during a time when its services are needed more than ever.
A Review of Deviant Nonprofit Groups: Seeking Method in their - Alleged ‘Madness-Treason Immorality’
After the economic and ideological changes of the 1990’s older people in Russia have shifted to become the most vulnerable, poor and disrespected group in the country’s population. However, despite the slowly recovering birth rate and low life expectancy, the older population is predicted to constitute almost a quarter of the Russian population (24.8%) in 2016.
However, so called “people’s universities” have long been part of the Soviet tradition and were renewed mostly for the education for older people in the post-Soviet era. Mostly they are supported by non-profit organisations and offer informal education on a range of topics and crafts. These programmes have proved to be enjoyed by older learners and are recognised to be major contributors to active ageing in Russia. Nevertheless, their numbers and capacities are not sufficient to respond to the variety of needs and interests of older people. At the same time large formal educational institutions such as universities do not usually consider the older population to be a target audience for their programmes.
Nevertheless, some political steps have been made by a few Russian regions. This article reports on a national survey of University of the Third Age-type provision for older people in eight cities nationwide. For example, in the Republic of Bashkortostan a region-wide governmentally sponsored programme, “Third Age Universities for All”, came into operation in 2011. A small survey of U3A students in one city is reported. It suggests that while the programme needs to be amended in many ways, it sets a worthwhile precedent and hopefully will be followed by other regions.
Published research in English is reviewed on the Nonprofit Sector (NPS) in mainland China since Mao’s death in 1976. A large, diverse, and rapidly growing NPS exists, but openly political Nonprofit Organizations (NPOs) outside the Communist Party and its control are prohibited. China has civil society in the narrower sense: a substantial civil society sector or NPS exists. However, the party-state in China continues to play a dominating role in regard to the NPS, especially for registered NPOs. Freedom of association is still limited in China, especially for national associations, which are nearly all Government Organized Nongovernmental Organizations (GONGOs), not genuine NGOs/NPOs. The broader scope definition of civil society focuses on functioning civil liberties, and the ability of NPOs in general to influence significantly the government on various policy issues. In these terms, China has a weak but slowly emerging civil society with far more associational freedom than under Mao.
In this new, fully revised edition of America’s Nonproﬁt Sector, renowned author Lester Salamon clariﬁes the scope, structure, ﬁnances, and operation of the nonproﬁt sector and examines how it has changed over time, both generally and in major ﬁelds like health care, education, arts, and religion.
The book analyses models of the welfare state and their impact on the nonprofit sector development in European countries and in Russia. It opens with the description of theoretical concepts and shows how nonprofit sector and civil society evolve within specific political regimes or models of social policy governance. Social origin theory was employed in order to show how neoliberal tendencies have influenced the nonprofit sector evolvement. In a nutshell, this theory explains patterns of civil society development cross-nationally. The analysis of Russian situation aims at identifying the model of the nonprofit sector deployment in this county in correlation with other European societies. Scholars consider Russian case as a model of “deferred democratization” with selective approach toward different NGOs and government domination in social sphere. The empirical analysis of Russian case enabled to identify three main characteristics of policy towards civil society organizations: neoliberal attempts to involve NGOs into service provision, resistance of paternalism and state support for limited scope of organizations and selective policy toward various organizations in terms of interest representation (state corporatism).
Government Funding Policies
Differences between Nonprofit Agencies and Membership Associations
The Neglected Dark Side of Voluntarism and the Nonprofit Sector: Larger Context of the General Theory of Deviant Nonprofit Groups