THz and Security Applications, Detectors, Sources and Associated Electronics for THz Applications, Chapter 6 Terahertz Imaging System Based on Superconducting Heterodyne Integrated Receiver
These proceedings have been written in an attempt to communicate the major purpose of the NATO Advanced ResearchWorkshop (ARW), 2013, that is, to bring to light the possibilities of performance, based on the actual level, of the everpromising THz (terahertz) technology, a kind of Araba Fenice, not yet known tomost technical operators, especially its appeal in security applications. To achieve this, the ARWhas invited highly experienced scientists with expertise in THz science and technology and its application areas. We begin with the consideration that the risk of mass murder due to terroristic attacks is on the rise, thus posing a threat for security in the civil and military world. To counter this problem, we look at one of the most appealing, newly emerging, technologies that is based on the THz detection of explosives and other forms of threats. However, operational difficulties (both for THz sensors and sources), especially regarding size, complexity of use, overall cost, and the need of very low temperatures for sensors, strongly limit the application of this technology. To find solutions to these and related issues, we invited expert scientists to present review papers on the most advanced sensors and sources based on THz technology, especially for security system applications. The ARW has been conferred the major task of describing the most advanced technologies, in terms of identifying their operational strengths and weaknesses, forecasting the best technological solutions to overcome the actual operational limits, and suggesting to the NATO SPS (Science for Peace and Security) Division the most reliable ways to proceed for future developments. To achieve a broad evaluation of the above aspects, a questionnaire on various key points with regard to the actual performance and possible future developments in the field of THz science, technology, and applications has been discussed.
We describe a compact dual-wavelength (1.047 and 1.053 μm) diode end-pumped Q-switched Nd:YLE laser source which has a number of applications in demand. In order to achieve its dual-wavelength operation it is suggested for the first time to use essentially nonmonotonous dependences of the threshold pump powers at these wavelengths on the cavity length in the region of the cavity semiconfocal configuration under a radius of the pump beam smaller than the radius of the zero Gaussian mode. Here we demonstrate one of the most interesting applications for this laser: difference frequency generation in a GaSe crystal at a frequency of 1.64 THz. A superconducting hot-electron bolometer is used to detect the THz power generated and to measure its pulse characteristics.
Achievement of the ultimate sensitivity along with a high spectral resolution is one of the frequently addressed problems, as the complication of the applied and fundamental scientific tasks being explored is growing up gradually. In our work, we have investigated performance of a superconducting nanowire photon-counting detector operating in the coherent mode for detection of weak signals at the telecommunication wavelength. Quantum-noise limited sensitivity of the detector was ensured by the nature of the photon-counting detection and restricted by the quantum efficiency of the detector only. Spectral resolution given by the heterodyne technique and was defined by the linewidth and stability of the Local Oscillator (LO). Response bandwidth was found to coincide with the detector's pulse width, which, in turn, could be controlled by the nanowire length. In addition, the system noise bandwidth was shown to be governed by the electronics/lab equipment, and the detector noise bandwidth is predicted to depend on its jitter. As have been demonstrated, a very small amount of the LO power (of the order of a few picowatts down to hundreds of femtowatts) was required for sufficient detection of the test signal, and eventual optimization could lead to further reduction of the LO power required, which would perfectly suit for the foreseen development of receiver matrices and the need for detection of ultra-low signals at a level of less-than-one-photon per second.
The expectedly very limited communication distance of nanoscale machines in the Terahertz Band (0.1–10 THz) is one of the main factors narrowing the scope of the nanonetworking applications. In this paper, the use of the transparency windows in the THz Band, which provide molecular-absorption-free transmission, is proposed as a way to extend the communication distance of nanomachines. The trade-offs between the signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio, channel capacity, transmission bandwidth and communication distance for these windows are identified. The results suggest that, by focusing on the first transparency window (0.1–0.54 THz), reliable communication up to 10 m is feasible when using just 0.1 aJ per symbol to achieve a capacity of up to 10 Mbps. For the same energy per symbol, when using the entire THz Band, the capacity is up to 2 Tbps, but only for distances below a few centimeters. Motivated by these results, the achievable link throughput of a simple binary digital modulation scheme based on the transmission of width-adaptive pulses is investigated. The results show that, due to the relaxation time of molecular absorption noise, additional pauses between pulse transmissions are required, but reliable communication is possible even for very small SNR values. These results extend the application scope of nanonetworks and illustrate that they are not limited to small coverage areas but can also be used to carry traffic generated by both low-rate transactional and bandwidth-greedy applications at small-to-medium distances.
The article is devoted to the academic biography of Jose Maria Coma Fort, one of the most the eminent Spanish historians of Roman Law (1969–2015). Particular attention is paid to his investigation of the manuscript and early print tradition of the Theodosian Code. It seems possible to affi rm that two last monographs of Coma Fort (2008 and 2014) should be considered as necessary steps to the publication of a new critical edition of the Theodosian Code. This edition, however, was not published due to the unexpected death of Coma Fort.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
By using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, we investigated anisotropic high-field (H less than or similar to 7T) low-temperature (10 K) magnetization response of inhomogeneous nanoisland FeNi films grown by rf sputtering deposition on Sitall (TiO2) glass substrates. In the grown FeNi films, the FeNi layer nominal thickness varied from 0.6 to 2.5 nm, across the percolation transition at the d(c) similar or equal to 1.8 nm. We discovered that, beyond conventional spin-magnetism of Fe21Ni79 permalloy, the extracted out-of-plane magnetization response of the nanoisland FeNi films is not saturated in the range of investigated magnetic fields and exhibits paramagnetic-like behavior. We found that the anomalous out-of-plane magnetization response exhibits an escalating slope with increase in the nominal film thickness from 0.6 to 1.1 nm, however, it decreases with further increase in the film thickness, and then practically vanishes on approaching the FeNi film percolation threshold. At the same time, the in-plane response demonstrates saturation behavior above 1.5-2T, competing with anomalously large diamagnetic-like response, which becomes pronounced at high magnetic fields. It is possible that the supported-metal interaction leads to the creation of a thin charge-transfer (CT) layer and a Schottky barrier at the FeNi film/Sitall (TiO2) interface. Then, in the system with nanoscale circular domains, the observed anomalous paramagnetic-like magnetization response can be associated with a large orbital moment of the localized electrons. In addition, the inhomogeneous nanoisland FeNi films can possess spontaneous ordering of toroidal moments, which can be either of orbital or spin origin. The system with toroidal inhomogeneity can lead to anomalously strong diamagnetic-like response. The observed magnetization response is determined by the interplay between the paramagnetic-and diamagnetic-like contributions.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.