Нусантара. Юго-Восточная Азия
Religion, ethnicity, and politics are typical explanatory variables of violent conflicts. From an economic point of view, economic growth reduces the risk of civil war, yet the economic determinants of conflict have been little studied. In this article, we empirically study the impact of regional macroeconomic conditions on the number of violent conflicts in Indonesia, a country with potential risks of communal conflict because of the plurality of its society. We use panel data consisting of observations on 16 Indonesian regions from 2004 to 2013 to assess the impact of economic factors on conflict, reevaluating the religion effect using dynamic models (SYS GMM estimator). Our findings suggest that only the inflation rate predicts the conflict growth rate. Economic growth, economic development, poverty, and even religion, do not significantly affect the number of regional conflicts.
The article focuses on the ethnic and confessional diversity of Indonesia, as well as mechanisms of supporting it in the framework of the country’s rapid economic development and active involvement into globalization processes.
This article analyses the evolution of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s (OECD) Principles of Corporate Governance and the economic environment of their transformation, as well as the key changes in the third version of the document adopted in 2015. The authors conclude that this version reflects the recent challenges related to the role of stock exchanges in corporate governance, information disclosure and risk management. However, it is still oriented toward profit maximization amid the lack of attention to the balance of interests among stakeholders and to aspects of corporate governance related to the quality of life. Members of the Group of 20 (G20) that are not members of the OECD participated in revising the document, but this did not result in any dramatic changes in the structure or content of the principles.
This article focuses on the cooperation between the OECD and G20 countries, including non-OECD members, in the process of updating the principles in 2013–15. The authors identify three major mechanisms of cooperation: 1) discussion of corporate governance at regional roundtables and other international events related to corporate governance, 2) online consultations and 3) OECD peer reviews. The article studies the participation of six G20 countries that are not members of the OECD: Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa and Indonesia. Brazil was the most active country under review — its representatives actively communicated with the OECD using all available mechanisms. The contributions of China, India, Indonesia and Russia were also estimated as high. The least active participant was South Africa.
The article reveals the present peculiar properties of relationship between Russia and Indonesia from its global, regional and bilateral perspective. Contributing to the existing academic writings, the political dialogue, the trade exchanges, as well as the state and the prospects for cooperation at the company level, are analyzed. The novelty of this work stems from a comprehensive analytical synergy between the global, regional and bilateral insights of relations between Russia and Indonesia, which allows to place them in a broad international context. The authors argue that a fresh “top-down” foreign policy initiative with a consolidating effect and in line with Russia-ASEAN Strategic Partnership will be a timely step to re-energize the presently stagnating cooperation between Russia and Indonesia.