Человек развивающийся. Очерки российской психологии
Examines the modification of the interdisciplinary connections of source stydy, depending on the transformation of its disciplinary status – a component of the methodology of history / a subdiscipline of historical science, – in correlation with the change of the object of source study. The immanence of connection of phenomenological conception of source study with psychology is revealed. The hypothesis about the multidisciplinary construction of the object of source study at the transformation of its subject in the subject field of historical science on the basis of the concept of “empirical reality of the historical world” is justified.
For several decades the Soviet academic psychology community was isolated from the West, yet after the collapse of the Soviet Union each of the 15 countries went their own way in economic, social, and scientific development. The paper analyses publications from post-Soviet countries in psychological journals in 1992–2017, i.e. 26 years after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Over the period in question, 15 post-Soviet countries had published 4986 papers in psychology, accounting for less than one percent of the world output in psychological journals. However, the growth of post-Soviet countries’ output in psychological journals, especially that of Russia and Estonia, is observed during this period. Over time, post-Soviet authors began to write more papers in international teams, constantly increasing the proportion of papers in which they are leaders and main contributors. Their papers are still underrepresented in the best journals as well as among the most cited papers in the field and are also cited lower than the world average. However, the impact of psychological papers from post-Soviet countries increases with time. There is a huge diversity between 15 post-Soviet countries in terms of contribution, autonomy, and impact. Regarding the number of papers in psychological journals, the leading nations are Russia, Estonia, Lithuania, Ukraine, and Georgia. Estonia is the leader in autonomy in publishing papers in psychological journals among post-Soviet countries. Papers from Estonia and Georgia are cited higher than the world average, whereas papers from Russia and Ukraine are cited below the world average. Estonia and Georgia also boast a high number of Highly cited papers.
The past few years have witnessed an increase of, on one hand, interest in popularized scientific knowledge, on the other hand, the number of people who believe in homeopathy and are wary of genetically modified products. It indicates a need for popularizing scientific knowledge including information about scientific psychology and scientifically developed practical methods which must be conveyed to the public at large, to those who take great interest in psychology, but look for information in the mass media rather than at school or university. In the last decade the social networks have become an everyday source of information for many people, especially young, and the quality of information about psychology being spread through the networks is of considerable interest to psychologists. The study described aimed to assess academic quality of psychological texts in theme communities, popular with users of the social network “Vkontakte”. Expert assessment (by young academic psychologists working at research institutes and universities of Moscow and St. Petersburg) helped to identify communities broadcasting academically correct (scientifically proved) and incorrect (not proved scientifically) information about psychology in the network. Texts (news, posts) from the two types of communities were identified with the help of the crawler, a system of collecting data from social networks, and prevalent subjects and terminology were identified with the help of computerized linguistic analysis. The terms “synapse”, “learning”, “axon”, “mediator” could serve as indicators of the academic nature of the texts, while “money”, “happiness”, “introvert” are indicators of the opposite. The authors intend to use the data obtained for developing recommendations for subscribers and network administrators interested in spreading scientific information about psychology.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.