Мышление и язык: Учебное пособие
The article defines understanding as a fact of our mental life. It reviews how understanding is reflected in language, in philosophical literature, in theology. A significant amount of research in the field of psychology is devoted to the problem of understanding, however, the process is obviously under-explored in terms of the mechanisms of understanding in teaching/learning. The following questions are raised: When did the problem of understanding arise? What are the mechanisms of understanding? The paper identifies three factors of understanding-misunderstanding: the connection of understanding with thought producing; the alienation of personal meaning of knowledge when it transforms into meaning; individual models of the child’s world which begin to shape before language is acquired and continue to develop in everyday concepts. The paper attempts to give answers to the questions from the perspective of the cultural-historical approach. Basing on the proposed ideas about the mechanisms of understanding- misunderstanding, it discusses the ways of achieving understanding in the educational process. It is argued that understanding is always concrete as it refers to a particular student, particular topic of the lesson and is closely related to motivation.
The article is devoted to the attempt to comprehend a thinking phenomenon. In the article it is noted that, despite numerous efforts of researchers, advance is not so big as it shoould be. In the article, based on data of psychology history, authors come to conclusion according to which insufficiently expressed progress in disclosure of mechanisms of thinking is connected with the fact that the methodological analysis is under-exploited in the analysis of thinking. In the article the position stated by V. D. Shadrikov about need of return of the thought concept into thinking psychology is also supported. Thinking is presented in the article as a subject and a problem of psychology. It is claimed that the interpretations of thinking presented in the Soviet and Post-Soviet psychological literature developed in a certain tradition which connected consideration of thinking mainly with philosophical and logical positions. In this context the person’s thinking was opposed to sensory perception and treated as the highest level of knowledge. In the article is formulated understanding of thinking as a psychological process having qualitative specifics: thinking entity as a psychological process consists in generation of thoughts and in work with thoughts. It becomes possible on the basis of use of the system of intellectual operations directed to solve tasks by means of disclosing objective properties, communications and relations. Taking into account achievements of modern neurophysiology a new solution of a psychophysical problem is proposed in the article. It is possible to believe that the proposed solution is adequate to the nature and functions of thinking. In the article the analysis of key aspects of thinking formation is undertaken. Here the interpretation of thinking as an ability is presented in the article. In the work are developed the ideas of the classic of national psychology S. L. Rubenstein according to which mastering cogitative operations is a process of intelligence formation. Advantages of the author's approach and understanding of the thought as a central concept of the theory of thinking are traced.