Лекции по математической логике и теории алгоритмов
In this note we interpret Voevodsky's Univalence Axiom in the language of (abstract) model categories. We then show that any posetal locally Cartesian closed model category Qt in which the mapping Hom(w)(Z B;C) : Qt --> Sets is functorial in Z and represented in Qt satises our homotopy version of the Univalence Axiom, albeit in a rather trivial way. This work was motivated by a question reported in [Gar11], asking for a model of the Univalence Axiom not equivalent to the standard one.
We construct a model category (in the sense of Quillen) for set theory, starting from two arbitrary, but natural, conventions. It is the simplest category satisfying our conventions and modelling the notions of niteness, countability and innite equi-cardinality. We argue that from the homotopy theoretic point of view our construction is essentially automatic following basic existing methods, and so is (almost all) the verication that the construction works.
We use the posetal model category to introduce homotopy-theoretic intu- itions to set theory. Our main observation is that the homotopy invariant version of cardinality is the covering number of Shelah's PCF theory, and that other combinatorial objects, such as Shelah's revised power function - the cardinal function featuring in Shelah's revised GCH theorem | can be obtained using similar tools. We include a small \dictionary" for set theory in QtNaamen, hoping it will help in nding more meaningful homotopy-theoretic intuitions in set theory.
The text introduces all main subjects of "naive" (nonaxiomatic) set theory: functions, cardinalities, ordered and well-ordered sets, transfinite induction and its applications, ordinals, and operations on ordinals. Included are discussions and proofs of the Cantor-Bernstein Theorem, Cantor's diagonal method, Zorn's Lemma, Zermelo's Theorem, and Hamel bases. With over 150 problems, the book is a complete and accessible introduction to the subject.
In the monography we consider theoretic and methodic origins of fundamental notions in the theory of functions of real variable. The text is designed for future and active school math teachers.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.