Соціологія та суспільство: взаємодія в умовах кризи. II Конгрес Соціологічної Асоціації України. Тези доповідей.
This chapter compares the interactions of the EU with Libya and Russia between the late 1990s until 2011, in the context of migration governance in the European “neighbourhood”, and, through the concept of policy transfer, explores the extent to which they invite a broader definition of the European neighbourhood. This comparison builds on crucial similarities between these two countries. From the EU perspective, cooperation with Russia and Libya was key since it considerably affected EU migration management capacities. Beyond the purview of established multilateral fora, the EU has engaged in close relations with Russia and Libya despite their not being parties to European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). The fact that the two countries did not partake in the ENP is central to our analysis. The ENP, targeting Eastern Europe, Southern Caucasus, as well as the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean, has attempted to put under the same umbrella countries that have very little in common. Various scholarly works focusing on the assessment of the ENP as a policy transfer instrument, have generally done this through comparisons either between ENP countries or between an ENP country to a non-ENP country. In this chapter, we attempt a comparison of two non-ENP countries that are, nonetheless, important EU neighbours. In this context, the chapter seeks to explain how Libya and Russia contributed to, and were deeply implicated in, the development of EU neighbourhood. This perspective builds on the proposition that the interaction with countries that influence so significantly migration patterns to the EU and yet are not fully ENP members has much to say about EU neighbourhood strategy and impact. We trace the negotiations on migration between the EU and Russia and those between the EU and Libya and highlight differences and similarities. We pay special attention to bargaining dynamics and policy outcomes in such areas as readmission, visa facilitation and border management. We show how agendas, problems and solutions in EU cooperation with Russia and Libya are comparable, though different, insofar as they are mutually constituent rather than unilaterally driven by the EU. Consequently, we reflect on the evolving meaning of the “neighbourhood” through the lens of formal, informal and ad hoc methods of cooperation on migration. Representing outliers or “outsiders” not only of the European integration process, but also of the ENP, the cases of Libya and Russia are markers of processes and norms redefining EU neighbourhood concept. In conclusion, we argue that the relative leeway enjoyed by Libya and Russia and the patterns of two-way transfer with the EU rest on the features that the two countries shared economically and politically, on their migration management capacities, as well as their not being formal neighbours of the EU, even though they belong to the EU’s “invented neighbourhood”. Overall, focusing on the role played by two “difficult” or even “disobliging” neighbours in the construction of EU neighbourhood, we hope to contribute to two strands of literature – on the policy transfer in the area of migration and on the role of “outsiders” in the evolution of EU neighbourhood policy. The chapter invites critical reflection on the “invented” character of the EU neighbourhood, interdependent nature of EU neighbourhood policy, its paradoxes and emerging features. It also contributes to a broader discussion on the usefulness and efficiency of the ENP as a policy transfer framework.
This book analyses the dynamics of regional migration governance and accounts for why, how and with what effects states cooperate with each other in diverse forms of regional grouping on aspects of international migration, displacement and mobility. The book develops a framework for analysis of comparative regional migration governance to support a distinct and truly global approach accounting for developments in Africa, Asia-Pacific, Central Asia, Europe, the Middle East, North America and South America and the many and varying forms that regional arrangements can take in these regions.
The growing salience of migration in today’s political and economic climate has drawn attention to the relevance of regional responses to global human mobility. This unique book explores the dynamics of migration governance beyond the traditional perspective of the state and examines why, how and with what effects states cooperate at a regional level on aspects of international migration and mobility. Developing an innovative approach centred on the organisation of migration governance, The Dynamics of Regional Migration Governance provides a comparative analysis of developments in regional and sub-regional migration governance on a truly global scale. From Africa, Asia-Pacific and Central Asia, to Europe, the Middle East and North and South America, leading scholars offer a fresh understanding of the trajectories and particularities of regional migration governance. These engaging chapters show how human mobility and its governance can create tensions between states that hinder or prevent cooperation. Providing a much-needed shift from a focus on governance outputs to governance processes, this compelling book highlights how regional practices, processes and structures of migration governance can play an active role in producing understandings of international migration as a social and political issue. Deploying geographical scope, conceptual insight and empirical depth, this comprehensive book is ideal for advanced students, as well as scholars investigating regionalism, migration and mobility. An acutely relevant work, it will also appeal to professional practitioners and policymakers working in international migration.
Housing construction in the Moscow urban agglomeration is the main incentive mechanism for migration inflow via the lowering of such important barrier as housing prices. There is a positive feedback between the extensive development of the Moscow urban agglomeration and migration inflow to the metropolitan area, leading to hyperconcentration of population and economic activity. Theoretical analysis has shown that there is an equilibrium ratio between the new housing supply and the net migration into the Moscow metropolitan area. Empirical evidence shows that the ability of the Moscow urban agglomeration to accumulate migration in the 2000s at the respective rate of construction fell by half compared to the 1990s. Migration inflow is mostly contributed by extensive model of agglomeration development and urban sprawl due to the dominance of large-scale economy-class construction projects on unoccupied lands in a 30-km zone between the Moscow Automobile Ring Road (MKAD) and the Moscow Small Ring Road (MMK). The construction in this zone is a key regulator of the migration balance in the Moscow urban agglomeration and at the national level. Extensive development is subsidized by regional and federal budgetary investments, including transportation infrastructure, which contradicts state efforts to mitigate interregional inequality through fiscal redistribution.
The book is devoted to issues of forecasting the size and structure of the Earth’s population until the end of the XXI century; it focuses on both the methodological aspects of making such demographic projections and on the consequences of various forecast scenarios for future trajectories of human development. The authors pay special attention to the level of education - in their opinion, the most significant component of human capital. At the same time, the educational structure of the population is not only a derivative of demographic changes and the pace of "education expansion" in various regions and countries of the world, but also itself has and will continue to have a significant impact on demographic processes. This is precisely the kind of defining impact education will have for the population of our planet in the 21st century.
Housing construction in the Moscow agglomeration is closely linked with the migration of the population to the capital region. The acquisition of real estate by nonresident buyers in the primary market of the Moscow capital region (MСR) in the amount of 2.5 mln m2 provides housing for about 100 000 migrants per year, or about 40 % of the net migration inflow. Buyers from other regions account for 17 % of transactions in Moscow and 23 % in Moscow Oblast. The activity of buyers in the real estate market of the MCR has a spatial differentiation by the Russian regions, which is determined by the factors of natural resource rents, agglomeration effect, the status rents in the large cities, the distance from the MCR. Regional identity of buyers was determined by the addresses of their initial registration. Factor of natural resource rents is evident in the high share (6.4 %) of housing buyers in Moscow from Khanty-Mansi and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs that is almost four times higher than their share in the population. The factor of distance leads to exceeding 2.1 times the share of housing buyers in Moscow from the neighboring regions of the first order over their shares in the population. The greatest activity in the housing market of Moscow is characteristic for residents of cities with the 250 000—500 000 population, of Moscow Oblast — with the 100 000—250 000 population. The share of buyers from the million-plus cities (17.7 %) is slightly greater than their share in the population. Small towns and rural areas have weak buying activity in the housing market. Thus, the development of alternative to Moscow centers of attraction at the national level is associated with a change in migration incentives for residents of cities with 100 000—500 000 population.
Justice and Home Affairs is one of the fastest expanding areas of research in European Studies. The European response to security concerns such as terrorism, organised crime networks, and drug trafficking as well as to the challenge of managing migration flows are salient topics of interest to an increasing number of scholars of all disciplines, the media and general public. This handbook takes stock of policy development and academic research in relation to justice and home affairs and analyses the field in an unprecedented thematic depth.
The book comprehensively investigates the field from the perspective of the three dimensions central to European integration: the sectoral (policies), the horizontal (states, regions) and the vertical (institutions, decision-making) dimensions. It also discusses the most important theoretical approaches used in this research area and provides the reader with a state of the art picture of the field.
By adopting such a comprehensive and broad-based approach, the handbook is uniquely positioned to be an important referent for scholars, practitioners and students interested in the area of justice, home affairs and European politics.
In this paper we study convergence among Russian regions. We find that while there was no convergence in 1990s, the situation changed dramatically in 2000s. While interregional GDP per capita gaps still persist, the differentials in incomes and wages decreased substantially. We show that fiscal redistribution did not play a major role in convergence. We therefore try to understand the phenomenon of recent convergence using panel data on the interregional reallocation of capital and labor. We find that capital market in Russian regions is integrated in a sense that local investment does not depend on local savings. We also show that economic growth and financial development has substantially decreased the barriers to labor mobility. We find that in 1990s many poor Russian regions were in a poverty trap: potential workers wanted to leave those regions but could not afford to finance the move. In 2000s (especially in late 2000s), these barriers were no longer binding. Overall economic development allowed even poorest Russian regions to grow out of the poverty traps. This resulted in convergence in Russian labor market; the interregional gaps in incomes, wages and unemployment rates are now below those in Europe. The results imply that economic growth and development of financial and real estate markets eventually result in interregional convergence.
The paper uses multidisciplinary approach implemented at the crossroads of geography, anthropology, demography and history. Based on phone subscriber data, we are trying to answer how migration influences the surnames variation in Russian regions. We found that the regions with a high variety of surnames are located within the Russian main belt of settlement, which has fostered a more active exchange and admixture of the population. Several regional cases are explored too.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.