Философия в университете. Взгляд из Москвы и Шанхая
The article develops the general outline of the ethical theory entitled "the ethics of exceptions". Thiis is the ethics, which presupposes the possibility of the ethical judgements and actions in the exceptional situations taking place at war or highly competitive business. Both often demand actions rather doubtful from the moral point of view. This approach has a number of advantages. One of them is the possibility of the broader moral concensus, which remains operative even under the strains of moral conflict. The other advantage is related to teaching ethics especially to political scientists and economists.
By comparing Russian translations of the classical Taoist treatise “Dao De Jing” and commentaries to it written in the 20th – early 21st century, the author shows how specific interpretations of the text were conditioned by philosophical-worldview and methodological preferences of translators in accordance with different historical periods.
Keywords: Chinese philosophy, Taoism, “Dao De Jing”, Russian Sinology, interpretation of Chinese philosophical texts.
Review of book by Deborah Martinsen "Surprised by Shame"
The author analyzes Dostoevsky's ideas about confession and theodicy and shows how they were influenced by Vladimir Solov'ev and St. Augustine
The article shows the main problems of teaching the Chinese philosophy in universities of Russia. These problems are connected with the obsolete views of the oriental philosophical systems, with the specific demands to the content of syllabuses in Russian universities and some popular nonconventional approaches by some sinologists to the Chinese philosophy. The author proposes the methodology of introductory teaching the Chinese philosophy. The methodology are based on teaching the Chinese philosophical terminology in the context of models of cosmo-antropo-genesis. This approach enables to introduse the students to the peculiarities of the traditional philosophical discourse in China and to adapt the matter to the different categories of students.
The present catalogue contains abstracts for some 150 volumes, among which books, periodicals, miscellanies, published by the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the principal institute in Russia for academic research in all kinds of philosophical knowledge. These works, written by eminent Russian scholars, cover such fi elds as the history of Russian, Western and Oriental philosophy, ethics and aesthetics, synergetics and epistemology, social and political philosophy and concentrate on problems that have attained particular importance in the age of globalization and growth of national self-consciousness.
The author compares the interpretations, which the leading Russian sinologists worked out for the concept of Dao (Way) in taoist treatise Dao de jing, shows how these interpretations are determined with the points of view on the text designation, philosophical world outlooks and methodological approaches as well, clears up similarities and distinctions between the approaches and the main trends of their evolution.
The great age of Russian philosophy spans the century between 1830 and 1930 - from the famous Slavophile-Westernizer controversy of the 1830s and 1840s, through the 'Silver Age' of Russian culture at the beginning of the twentieth century, to the formation of a Russian 'philosophical emigration' in the wake of the Russian Revolution. This volume is a major history and interpretation of Russian philosophy in this period. Eighteen chapters (plus a substantial introduction and afterword) discuss Russian philosophy's main figures, schools and controversies, while simultaneously pursuing a common central theme: the development of a distinctive Russian tradition of philosophical humanism focused on the defence of human dignity. As this volume shows, the century-long debate over the meaning and grounds of human dignity, freedom and the just society involved thinkers of all backgrounds and positions, transcending easy classification as 'religious' or 'secular'. The debate still resonates strongly today.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.