Speculum Slaviae Orientalis. Moscovy, Ruthenia and Lithuania in the late Middle Ages
This collection of essays examines a number of issues in late medieval East Slavic cultural and intellectual history with particular focus on Muscovy and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Among the central topics of this book are the multilingual and multiconfessional cultural milieus in these lands, interaction between Muscovite and Ruthenian cultures, and contact between the Eastern Slavs and non-Slavic peoples residing wilhin and outside their ethnic terrain. This book will be of special interest to cultural historians, philologists and linguists.
The article describes the multilingualism of the austrian writer V. Vertlib as the source of his literary creativity.
Nowadays the global purpose of a foreign language mastering is considered to be the union with the foreign culture and the participation in cultures dialogue. This purpose is achieved due to the formation of the ability for inter-cultural competence that is acquiring the necessary level of communicative competence. The notion of communicative competence has many aspects and comprises several sub-competencies. One of the most important is considered to be the discursive competence which is the knowledge of various types of discourses and the rules of their construction and also the ability to create and understand them taking into account the communication situation.
This volume offers empirical perspectives on the current sociolinguistic situations in former Eastern Bloc countries. Its seventeen chapters analyse phenomena such as language choice, hierarchies and ideologies in multilingualism, language policies, minority languages in new legal, educational, business and migratory contexts, as well as the position of English in the region. The authors use various methodological approaches – including surveys, discourse analyses, descriptions and analyses of linguistic landscapes, and ethnography – in order to deal with sociolinguistic issues in eight countries and seven regions, from Brandenburg, Germany, in the West to Sakhalin, Russia, in the East.
Recent decades have witnessed an increase in the number of works dedicated to the analysis of effects of historical events on the choice of institutions and further economical and social development of regions. This article employs the new institutional economics theory approach to consider the choices regarding title to land and serfdom in Moscovy and Rzeczpospolita (earlier the Grand Duchy of Lithuania) in the 16th-17th centuries. The author emphasises the factors, which have affected the choice of institutional development trajectory, and considers the influence exerted by these institutes on the political and military development of these states. This article shows how the contingent property rights in Moscovy turned out to be competitive in the conditions of a considerable contribution of decentralisation factors to defence capacity and, opposite to the situation in Rzeczpospolita, ensured the formation of large and efficient troops. This work contributes to research on property rights and Russian economic history.
More than 40 languages are spoken in the relatively small territory of highland Daghestan. People living in a traditional Daghestanian village often spoke two to four languages which are either genealogically unrelated or only distantly related. The linguistic repertoire may be different in two neighboring villages. Nowadays, neighboring villages with different L1 most frequently communicate in Russian, but in the recent past local languages were used for this purpose. The aim of this paper is to trace the shifts in the language repertoire that occurred in Daghestan during the 20th century. The paper uses the results of interviews conducted in 13 mountain villages of Daghestan in 2009–2013.
The volume includes proceedings of the 23th Scandianvian Conference of Linguistics (SCL 23) that was held at Uppsala University 1–3 October 2008. It includes studies covering a wide spectrum of approaches to linguistics, for example, cross-linguistic typological studies, linguistic variation and language change in contact situations as well as studies relating to bilingualism and to second and foreign language learning.
The book describes theinterdependent relations between the multilingualism and literary creativity.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.