Психологические проблемы самореализации личности
The problem of personality presentation has not been defined in terms of interpersonal relations in Russian psychology. Self- presentation varies in differing levels, from socialpsychological one to the individual level, taking into account either the image of the individual with his personal traits or the image of the social group. At the level of interpersonal relationship reveal a person comprises emotional stability, agreeableness, self-consciousness, openness to selfdialogue.
In practice, self-presentation is a key piece of a person's social experience, which proves to be a very important point for his professional activity. Although the problem of personal representation of a human in the frame of a communicative dialogue has not become the subject of extensive research yet, it is gaining a prominent place in the media in terms of practical application. The phenomenon of self-disclosure can be considered at different levels, from socio-political to the individually psychological ones, the evidence to which can be observed in the authoring programs designed in TV format. From academic perspective, psychology defines such famous dialogue-interviews as a communicative dialogue, the nuclear grain of which consists in the ability to induce the other to self-disclosure.
The article is devoted to the study of the popularity of personal trainings among the population of Russia. The search for the meaning of life and the desire for values of self-expression, which have replaced the values of survival, as well as global transformations, lead to the search for ways to meet the new demands of personal and social life. One way to meet this request is to train on personal development.One way to meet this request is to train on personal development. The article discusses the history of training, the motivation for consuming training services, and the degree of satisfaction with these services. The author made a conclusion about the formation of the market for personal development services, the entrepreneurial activity on which is intensive, and the demand is quite high.
What will be the image of a society, if we consider it in the context of life plans of its citizens? How strong is the social commitment to achieve greater well-being through the implementation of life goals in the society? The results of the study show that only 52% of Russians have a conscious and being realized life goals, while the other part of society does not see and/or set any life goals for the future. The proportions of the population with utilitarian, idealistic and mixed goals, identified based on the criterion of connection with material consumption and orientation on themselves or on others are estimated. It is shown that subjectively expected income growth associated with the implementation of utilitarian and mixed life goals is comparable with the average income in Russia. The contribution of individuals’ social status components and self-evaluation of the past achievements to the differentiation of the population by the presence and absence of goals, idealistic and utilitarian nature of goals, by the social nature of the lack of goals is measured. The survey was carried out on the basis of a representative sampling for the Russian Federation in 2017. The overall size of sampling is 700 people.
Downshifting phenomenon is regarded as a process of inner choice between two options of personal actualization: personalization and personification. Cultural and social background of such choice is described historically. Some aspects of psychological dynamics of choice are illustrated by examples of different downshifting strategies.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.