International student admission allows not only to universally popularize Russian education but also to replenish human capital assets at an easy rate and to solve the problem of demographic pit at the expense of fresh graduates willing to permanently move to Russia after their graduation. The CIS states are currently the main source of enrollees willing to obtain higher education in Russia. The paper specifies the differences in socio-demographic characteristics and value orientations of those students who want to move permanently to Russia, to get back to their home country or to move permanently to any other country. Based on the survey involving 262 students from the CIS countries studying in the Moscow universities, the study shows that students with different migration intentions have substantial differences in value orientations according to the Schwartz Value Survey data; they also differ by their socio-demographic characteristics such as parents’ education level, household income and national identity.
In the domain of personal savings, Russia today is characterised by three main features: quite modest amount of accumulated money (total amount is equal to 12 per cent of GNP; per capita amount of saving is equal to -300), great social and geographical unevenness of savings' distribution (not more than 20 per cent of adult population have got any savings; one-third of all savings are concentrated in Moscow), and a very big portion of money saved in cash form (half of the total amount of savings). A strong propensity to save in cash is determined for the most part by a strong and growing mistrust in private banks and securities. Theoretically speaking, the amount and distribution of savings make it possible to transform into investment about 30-40 per cent of cash savings (-7-10 billion). But mistrust in private financial instruments and structures makes it unreal at least in a short-run prospect.
There is a strong position of informal institutions positive assessment in science literature dedicated to the history of public administration in Russia. Researchers emphasize that the existence of horizontal mechanisms of informal redistribution and the methods of softening the strict regulation made the planned economy of the USSR viable. At the same time informal rules and made with using personal relations managerial decisions in contemporary Russian public administration are condemned as the signs of corruption system thought several authors admit it as inherent for our national economy.
The empirical basis of the article is the interviews with civil servants, public officials and business representatives, who highlighted the cases of municipal management and local living standards improvement through informal interactions between local and government authorities and between public authorities and business. According to our research, for example, social responsibility of enterprises in Russia is extremely high, but locates in informal area.
The shadow public administration allows authorities to avoid strict and incomplete regulation, to make public administration mobile, to coordinate the activities of public authorities at the municipal unit. In other words, the informal administration appears as a reaction on formal government and municipal management disadvantages: there is an avalanche of challenges that could not be timely tackled through formal rules.
In this article, authors analyze patterns of parental involvement in children’s schooling basing on the data of Monitoring of education markets and organizations completed in 2016. Authors argue that the involvement in children’s schooling is highly differentiated and suggest five types of it: regents, facilitators, sponsors, inspectors and invisibles. These types of parental involvement represented unequally depending on the socio-economic background of the family and children’s progress at school, plans for educational attainment and engagement in extracurricular activities.
In 2000—2010, Moscow cultural environment was undergoing considerable changes related to the emergence of major non-governmental cultural institutions (Garage Museum of Contemporary Art, Vinzavod, Strelka Institute, et cet.). The paper is devoted to the labor practices of these institutions. In Great Britain and Western Europe, creative/cultural working conditions were properly studied: both qualitative and quantitative research showed that the institutions were characterized by high risk levels, precarious employment, non-formal labor practices and work arrangement, and gender, ethnic and social inequality. As to Russia and the post-Soviet space, the researchers, with few exceptions, did not pay enough attention to this topic. The paper based on interviews with Moscow art centers’ employees and workplace observations describes working conditions and professional identities of the Russian creative workers.
The paper aims at revealing gender differences in the level of satisfaction with different aspects of job in Russia. The research is based upon the analysis of two waves of "Complex observation of living conditions in Russia" conducted by the Russian Federal State Statistics Service in 2011 and 2014. It is shown that during the period of three years the level of job satisfaction for both men and women increased in Russia. Men turned out to be more satisfied with wage, whereas women are happier with other job characteristics such as job security, job content, working hours, working conditions, and distance from home to work. In other words, gender paradox is present in Russia, as other things being equal, women in Russia are more satisfied with work than man. Generally the described gender differences are stable when taking into account age, education and type of contract of the employees. However, the largest gender differences in job satisfaction were found for the middle-aged, especially for the belonging to 36-45 age group, whereas for the group above 55 years the gender gap is less. Gender differences are significant for all educational groups, but they become slightly weaker for people with higher education. Compared with employees with permanent and temporary contract, workers without written contract demonstrate larger gender differences in satisfaction with various job aspects. At the same time, gender differences in wage satisfaction for workers without written contract disappear.
The article discusses fundraising – the process of mobilizing resources from external sources for the purpose of public good. The analysis is based on the data from standardized face-to-face interviews with the leaders of nongovernmental organizations in 33 regions of the Russian Federation collected in 2015 (N=850), and in-depth interviews with NGO leaders and specialists on fundraising. The article describes the situation with fundraising from different sources, such as government institutions at different levels, business, nongovernmental organizations, foundations, population; assesses use of different fundraising methods and channels; depicts causes which attract donations most easily; defines trends and perspectives of development of fundraising practices in Russia.
The article is a review of the ESOMAR Qualitative Research Conference ('Qualitative ascending, harnessing its true value') that was held in Boston, USA, in November 2002. The focus is on the stateofthe-art qualitative research, and more specifically, on the focus groups as the most common and well-known tool in the research practice. Two basic issues are discussed: evolution of the method, and application of the focus group methodology in the emerging markets. The authors' conclusion, illustrated by the case studies reported at the Conference, is that the 'classic' focus group now undergoes the process of transformation towards the much softer and bricolage methodological techniques aimed to provide better insights into consumer motivations and behavior. The case studies that describe situation in the emerging or unstable markets (former Eastern Germany, Gulf states, Indonesia, Argentina) are reviewed from the perspective of their similarity with the dramatic processes going on in modern Russia.
Abstract. The article is devoted to a focused interview in the classic concept of Robert Merton. The purpose of the article is to reconstruct the features of the FI method and the criteria for assessing the quality of its results for further systematic comparisons of various outwardly similar techniques and systematization of criteria for assessing the quality of their results. The specifics of a focused interview are analyzed in detail. We consider four key criteria for the effectiveness of a focused interview (completeness, specificity, depth, personal context), an attempt is made to group the criterion on two grounds. The first basis is the "quality of stimulus reflection", which includes such characteristics as completeness, specificity. The second basis is the "quality of the reflection of the stimulus image," which includes the following characteristics in Robert Merton's concept: depth, personal context.
In a holistic process of focused interview, it is advisable to distinguish two phases: the phase of the organization of perception of the stimulus (situation) and the phase of reporting the results of the perception of the situation.
In the phase of the organization of perception (the same) situation (the same referent), focusing (directionality) is encouraged, whereas in the phase of communicating response reactions to a single (objectively identical) stimulus, the defocusing is fundamentally encouraged for all stimuli.
The author conclude that in analyzing the data of a focused interview, three components are distinguished: an objective situation, a subjective definition of the situation, reactions to the objective situation in accordance with its subjective definition.
The author conclude that the "focused interview" method, with all visible pluses, has a number of limitations: (1) narrowness, in a focused interview, the most specific and specified stimulus is discussed, (2) the method is limited, a focused interview in the Mertonian sense is not applicable when discussion of topics that are not and cannot be the subject of a common, shared by all experience, (3) time constraints - the incentive can be forgotten, revised due to the passage of a large amount of time from the moment of its impact to the moment of its discussion.
Irina A. Krutiy, Konstantin S. Fursov in their article "Goals and Motivation for Entering the Universities" study the major motivation for taking up higher education and choosing the educational options, as well as formulate the key criteria applied by the school graduates in the process of selection of the university.
Based upon the results of the all- Russian representative survey conducted by the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 2014, the paper explores norms and values of Russians. According to the study, Russia is characterized by a high degree of differentiation of values people are guided in everyday life: both rational culture, based on self-expression and initiative, and a culture of passive adaptation to the existing environment live side by side. The degree of the value differentiation of norms reflecting the views of the country’s internal and external image is much lower; and the statism values still prevail over the liberal ones. What brings Russians with different value systems together is the common need for social justice as the key purpose of the country`s development; at the same time, the representations about its content differ depending on the group.