Mixed methods research is ‘trendy’ in the Western sociological community. It became popular in recent years; however, this approach has not been conceptualized in the Russian sociological school. The paper is devoted to the activity of the «Mixed Methods» Research and Study Group (RSG) that worked at the National Research Institute Higher School of Economics in 2014—2016 and acted in fact as the first interdisciplinary platform to discuss the opportunities and perspectives of this sociological method. The author touches upon the evolution of the mixed methods strategy, the use of proper terminology, pays attention to ethical issues that the social scientists using this tool face and describes the basic results of the work of the RSG.
The paper describes a recent study aimed at investigating the most efficient data imputation algorithm for several methods of data analysis such as regression modeling, factor analysis, descriptive statistics, and correlation analysis. The lack of recommendations when choosing the data imputation algorithm poses the problem of choice ambiguity in each situation.
The authors consider that the data imputation algorithm should be selected according to the method employed after data improvement. In other words, it is believed that for each data analysis method the efficiency of the same data imputation algorithm is different. The statistical experiment was used to evaluate the efficiency of several data imputation algorithms for each method of data analysis.
The core idea of statistical experiment was to compare the results of each method application used in the etalon data set (without missing values) with the results obtained on a large number of artificial subsamples generated from the original data set where missing values were filed with comparable data imputation algorithms.
Generation of subsamples was carried out via the bootstrap procedure, which allowed to undertake
statistical evaluation and to build confidence intervals for each parameter before and after the data imputation.
Through this experiment the authors managed to evaluate the efficiency of such data imputation algorithms as imputation with the average trend measures, the EM algorithm, the imputation via regression model and Hot Deck algorithm for the mentioned methods of data analysis.
A sea change in the differentiation of moral views happened in the mid-1990s while the differences between the measurements in 1999 and 2008 are far less dramatic. The differentiation of judgements concerning homosexuality and euthanasia proceded consequentially in 1990-2008. Most equally distributed and in Russia and Belarus are the judgements about the abortion and divorce. Only the views on suicide have not changed since 1990. The changes in moral views among the population of Eastern Europe resulted in the individualization of the views on the traditionally disapproved social phenomena. However, substantial differences remain, even between the culturally close countries. A more detailed treatment of this process requires a comparison of the moral values in private life and social life (e.g. tax paying, briberies) and cohort analysis of moral views in Eastern Europe.
The paper considers different approaches to the factor analysis (FA) for ordinal data. In some studies it is necessary to find a latent variable behind the observed indicators measured on an ordinal scale. Classical factor analysis cannot be applied to those indicators as it is built on the Pearson correlation coefficient which is only applicable to interval variables. So the researcher faces a choice: to treat the ordinal variables as the interval ones, to dichotomize ordinal variables or to use special techniques for ordinal indicators such as replacing the correlation matrix or using Categorical principal components analysis (CatPCA). The study is based on a theoretical comparison of assumptions that underpin the algorithms of each applications and a statistical experiment and provides an answer to the question which of the above-mentioned factorization approaches is optimal for indentifying latent variables measured by ordinal indicators on a 3-point, 5-point or 10-point scale.
Abstract. Various Russian monitoring studies record low level of public trust in noncommercial organizations. Simultaneously, how those organizations whose operations directly depend on donations tackle the problem of public trust is lacking attention. This paper presents the results of an empirical study to examine the activities of charitable foundations which depend upon public donations. Through a series of expert interviews three main fundraising strategies were defined. The author highlights that low institutional trust may be compensated by the personal trust in a leader and/or an employee of the foundation as well as by high levels of transparency and raising awareness about foundation`s activities. Each strategy is different in terms of tools to collect donations,levels of interaction with the donors and a basis of trust.
The Federal Law “On Education in the Russian Federation” which came into force in 2013 made postgraduate studies the third cycle studies. This marked the beginning of the transition to structured postgraduate programs. Despite the fact that this transition mirrors global trends, returning to the old Soviet model is currently widely discussed. The article explores the opinions of academic supervisors on a model that would best suit Russian contemporary higher education. Two postgraduate education models are under discussion: a “mentorship” model which corresponds to the pre-2012 Russian postgraduate education and a model of “structured programs” which differ in terms of three main characteristics: (1) academic workload; (2) tracking postgraduate student progress; (3) skills acquired. The study is based on a mixed design: semi-structured interviews and online survey were used to collect data. Academic supervisors were asked about an ideal postgraduate system based on the four listed characteristics. A total of 24 semi-structured interviews were conducted, and 166 academic supervisors from two Russian universities were surveyed. Results reveal heterogeneity in opinions. Most of respondents either consider that an ideal postgraduate education would combine both the features of the “mentorship” model and the features of the “structured programs” model or fail to be clear about what kind of model would best suit Russian postgraduate education. Such findings may be related to “anomy” in today’s Russian postgraduate training. This anomy results from unfinished transition period and uncertain strategic priorities of the Russian postgraduate education.
International student admission allows not only to universally popularize Russian education but also to replenish human capital assets at an easy rate and to solve the problem of demographic pit at the expense of fresh graduates willing to permanently move to Russia after their graduation. The CIS states are currently the main source of enrollees willing to obtain higher education in Russia. The paper specifies the differences in socio-demographic characteristics and value orientations of those students who want to move permanently to Russia, to get back to their home country or to move permanently to any other country. Based on the survey involving 262 students from the CIS countries studying in the Moscow universities, the study shows that students with different migration intentions have substantial differences in value orientations according to the Schwartz Value Survey data; they also differ by their socio-demographic characteristics such as parents’ education level, household income and national identity.
In the domain of personal savings, Russia today is characterised by three main features: quite modest amount of accumulated money (total amount is equal to 12 per cent of GNP; per capita amount of saving is equal to -300), great social and geographical unevenness of savings' distribution (not more than 20 per cent of adult population have got any savings; one-third of all savings are concentrated in Moscow), and a very big portion of money saved in cash form (half of the total amount of savings). A strong propensity to save in cash is determined for the most part by a strong and growing mistrust in private banks and securities. Theoretically speaking, the amount and distribution of savings make it possible to transform into investment about 30-40 per cent of cash savings (-7-10 billion). But mistrust in private financial instruments and structures makes it unreal at least in a short-run prospect.
There is a strong position of informal institutions positive assessment in science literature dedicated to the history of public administration in Russia. Researchers emphasize that the existence of horizontal mechanisms of informal redistribution and the methods of softening the strict regulation made the planned economy of the USSR viable. At the same time informal rules and made with using personal relations managerial decisions in contemporary Russian public administration are condemned as the signs of corruption system thought several authors admit it as inherent for our national economy.
The empirical basis of the article is the interviews with civil servants, public officials and business representatives, who highlighted the cases of municipal management and local living standards improvement through informal interactions between local and government authorities and between public authorities and business. According to our research, for example, social responsibility of enterprises in Russia is extremely high, but locates in informal area.
The shadow public administration allows authorities to avoid strict and incomplete regulation, to make public administration mobile, to coordinate the activities of public authorities at the municipal unit. In other words, the informal administration appears as a reaction on formal government and municipal management disadvantages: there is an avalanche of challenges that could not be timely tackled through formal rules.
In this article, authors analyze patterns of parental involvement in children’s schooling basing on the data of Monitoring of education markets and organizations completed in 2016. Authors argue that the involvement in children’s schooling is highly differentiated and suggest five types of it: regents, facilitators, sponsors, inspectors and invisibles. These types of parental involvement represented unequally depending on the socio-economic background of the family and children’s progress at school, plans for educational attainment and engagement in extracurricular activities.
In 2000—2010, Moscow cultural environment was undergoing considerable changes related to the emergence of major non-governmental cultural institutions (Garage Museum of Contemporary Art, Vinzavod, Strelka Institute, et cet.). The paper is devoted to the labor practices of these institutions. In Great Britain and Western Europe, creative/cultural working conditions were properly studied: both qualitative and quantitative research showed that the institutions were characterized by high risk levels, precarious employment, non-formal labor practices and work arrangement, and gender, ethnic and social inequality. As to Russia and the post-Soviet space, the researchers, with few exceptions, did not pay enough attention to this topic. The paper based on interviews with Moscow art centers’ employees and workplace observations describes working conditions and professional identities of the Russian creative workers.
The paper aims at revealing gender differences in the level of satisfaction with different aspects of job in Russia. The research is based upon the analysis of two waves of "Complex observation of living conditions in Russia" conducted by the Russian Federal State Statistics Service in 2011 and 2014. It is shown that during the period of three years the level of job satisfaction for both men and women increased in Russia. Men turned out to be more satisfied with wage, whereas women are happier with other job characteristics such as job security, job content, working hours, working conditions, and distance from home to work. In other words, gender paradox is present in Russia, as other things being equal, women in Russia are more satisfied with work than man. Generally the described gender differences are stable when taking into account age, education and type of contract of the employees. However, the largest gender differences in job satisfaction were found for the middle-aged, especially for the belonging to 36-45 age group, whereas for the group above 55 years the gender gap is less. Gender differences are significant for all educational groups, but they become slightly weaker for people with higher education. Compared with employees with permanent and temporary contract, workers without written contract demonstrate larger gender differences in satisfaction with various job aspects. At the same time, gender differences in wage satisfaction for workers without written contract disappear.