The article is dedicated to the specifics of technologically mediated communication on the example of collective alcohol consumption with the use of programs for video connection such as Skype. The author presents a review of the research concerning the alcohol consumption and online technologies; overviews posts on social media related to the topic; conducts a number of interviews with persons who have an experience of drinking alcohol, while talking online to someone. Despite the fact that the participants of this small-scale study are Russian-speaking emigrants, the conclusion of the research concerns broader issues (such as perception of differences between online and offline communication). The author offers a small typology of the situation of drinking via Skype and concludes that this practice perceived as deficient by its participants.
The article presents an overview of the scientific publications, dedicated to the usage of Skype and programs alike for conducting qualitative research interview. The author describes some formal differences and similarities, as well as analyses some of the content’s aspects. The researches on Skype interview are in general quite coherent and the conclusions made by their authors do not contradict each other. However, this may indicate as well that the usage of Skype in interviews has not been researched enough, especially regarding the fact, that the authors of such publications often do not specialize on methodology, and that the overall empirical experience of conducting Skype-interviews on average is very limited. Besides, the author of this review notices that her colleagues mention that Skype interviews take place not in the situations of physical co-presence, but in their comparisons they do not consider this fact as a difference worthy to be studied.
The article explores social selfidentification of volunteers in the context of the broadly understood social activities (activism). The focus of the study is to describe how active Russian volunteers understand the differences between volunteer and protest participation and how the incompatibility between two forms of social activity can be explained. Based on sixty semi-formalized interviews involving active volunteers from different volunteer associations of the Perm region, the author reconstructs a space depicting volunteer and protest activities. The space has four axes each with two poles: good / absence of good; words / deeds; privacy / publicity; loyalty / disloyalty. The first three axes refer to the simplified view life; the person does not want to socialize in the world of mature civil actions living in an unexceptionable private space and avoiding actions where the opinion of others must be taken into account and compromises are to be found. Such a naivety and avoidance of civic socialization allow volunteers achieving positive freedom not engaging in distracting protest actions against structural problems. Only the fourth axe reflects mature civil position of a volunteer who is ready to search for compromises and common interest in the world of confronting desires to stay loyal toward the existing order and to choose the positive action rather than the negative one. The analysis helped to determine forms of argumentation and different points of view as well as identities of volunteers and political activists.
The article explores the social identity conceptual framework of volunteers in the context of broadly understood social activism. The research question is how active volunteers in Russia to understand the differences between the volunteer and protest participation, as argued incompatibility of the two forms of social activity. Upon thematically selected fragments from 60 semi-formalized interviews with active volunteers from various voluntary organizations of Perm kray, collected in the spring and summer of 2011, a conceptual framework of contrasting protest participation against volunteer participation is reconstructed as a four-dimensional semantic space. Each dimension is shaped by two poles: (1) the good and the absence of good, (2) deed and words, (3) privacy and publicity, (4) loyalty and disloyalty.
In the first three dimensions there is guessed a simplified worldview of an actor who does not want to socialize in the complex world of mature civil action, living in an ethically irreproachable private space and avoiding public scenes, where one has to take into account the wills of the others and to seek compromises and common grounds for interactions. Intentional escape from socialization (or keeping oneself naive) allows realizing via volunteer participation a desire for positive freedom, ignoring all the routs that could lead to militant struggle against structural problems of society. Only the fourth dimension reflects a mature citizenship of volunteers ready to look at the world of colliding wills common ground and compromise, to remain loyal to the established order, preferring positive actions to negative ones.
The analysis revealed the lines of reasoning, and corresponding representations of the world the volunteers live in, and how they position themselves in it against political activists.
The review introduces the reader to the book of the Israeli sociologist Orna Donath “Regretting Motherhood: A Study”.
The review introduces the reader to the book of the Israeli sociologist Orna Donath “Regretting Motherhood: A Study”.
Russia has been characterized by an early and universal marriage for a long time. After the Soviet Union collapse, the average ages for marriage have been rising, marital unions have becoming rarer while cohabitations have becoming common because of changes in norms and values that citizens of many other countries witnessed several decades before. Many scholars have observed this trend and tried to explain its reasons through the perspective of the Second Demographic Transition and Globalization theories. Current research is another attempt to understand these changes. The aim of this research was to define the nature of cohabitations in Russia, and find out the factors of entrance to non-marital unions. For these purposes, we used Event History Analysis and Sequence Analysis. The key requirement in using these methods is applying longitudinal or retrospective collections of data that have become the gold standard of current quantitative social science. Accordingly, the three-wave panel data of the Russian part of “Generations and Gender Survey” and the retrospective data of “Person, Family, Society” were chosen for this study. The opposite trends of matrimonial behavior were revealed: the younger Russian people are, the higher their probabilities to start the first cohabitation and the lower their risks to have the first marriage. Cohabitation is not a complete alternative to marriage in our country yet, but the proportion of Russians, for whom cohabitation does not grow into a marriage, rises, and young people start to consider a non-marital union appropriate for childbearing. It is a sign that cohabitation is close to become an independent social institution for young non-religious people who get secondary vocational education in big cities.
The paper is based on the results of an empirical study of media communities (public pages and online groups) of Moscow districts. The study aims at describing the community moderators’ practices as well as formal and substantive features of the online publications. Nonstandardized (indepth) interviews and content analysis method are used in the study. One of specific features of Moscow districts’ public pages and communities is that they were created due to the increased demand of a group of city inhabitants for the implementation of social projects and the principle of their «right to the city» and also in the absence of official online activities of the local administration resulted from a low level of adaptability of municipalities to innovative communication practices. In this situation, the representatives of authorities prefer to stay incognito in the established communities; they use intermediaries specializing in modern communication technologies and pretending to be media activists and consider this communicative strategy to be more effective so far. The authors describe the main tasks the online communities’ moderators have to tackle as well as topics and other features of the published content.
The present paper opera tionalizes one of the oldest concepts in the sociological literature about social stratification. Although the concept of life chances is well studied, its opera tionalization for purposes of stratification studies is not a trivial task, which needs a broader and deeper discussion. To fill this gap in the literature, the author con siders life chances in terms of Weber’s idea of positive and negative privileges. The author proposes a bipolar ‘map’ of life chances in key areas of life such as economic conditions, work situation, human capital accumulation, and consumption and leisure activities.
The article discusses the present condition and future prospects of the development of social servicing in Russia after the coming into force of the Federal Law No. 442 (dated December 22, 2013). The focus of the study is an ambiguous character of the reform and the related consequences. Administra‑ tive decentralization and delegation of power to regions according to this law is driven by the tasks set by the govern‑ ment for the stakeholders. The reforms are designed to change the logic of the provision of social services: clients, mainly female clients, would become customers, and former monopolists, state social services, would become one of the providers of social services which should interact with each other on a competitive basis. However due to high independence of regions in inter‑ pretation of the law provisions it is rather difficult to assess the degree of changes and quality improvements in social ser‑ vicing. The authors provide an analysis of empirical qualitative survey conducted in a central region in Russia (Nizhny Novgo‑ rod). Using the data of semi‑standardized interviews with the stakeholders involv‑ ing in the implementation of the Federal Law no. 442 the authors discuss the key topics unveiling the specifics of the ongoing changes and explain the future prospects. 127МОНИТОРИНГ ОБЩЕСТВЕННОГО МНЕНИЯ № 4 (152) Июль — аВГуСТ 2019 И. А. Григорьева, И. Л. Сизова, А. Ю. Москвина ГОСУДАРСТВО И ОБЩЕСТВО Переосмысление места и роли пожилых людей в обществе привело к понима‑ нию необходимости решения актуальных проблем этой социально‑возрастной группы. Но весь период деятельности современной российской власти она произ‑ водила противоречивые импульсы, а стратегические цели социального развития The findings of the study reveal restric‑ tions concerning clients’ freedom of choice and an attempt to turn the clients into active users of social services. Other restrictions include pursuit of massive involvement and high numbers of clients, increase of costs of services, refusal to participate in competition and strive to maintain the status‑quo. The authors conclude that the fundamental princi‑ ples of social services such as targeting of provision of services and reciprocity will not be implemented in Russia. In order to reform social support services for the elderly it is essential to employ the resources of clients and to build a system of interactions between the state, private and public sectors.
During the last decades, people from the developed countries have been postponing the occurring of the important events marking a transition to adulthood. The age of completion of education and the age of entry into the labor market are important social and economic indicators of such transition. There are some evidences of appearance of the same process in Russia (Dmitriev, Maleva, and Sinyavska, 2009). Under the influence of economic, demographic, political and social changes of the 1990th, life courses of the Russians became more opened and flexible. The integrated studying of this phenomenon is impossible without application of the modern concepts and methods of analysis. The present article aims to introduce the life course concept and its main terms. There are also some empirical examples of the usage of the cutting-edge methods of the life course analysis made on the data of quantitative sociological studies.
Mixed methods research is ‘trendy’ in the Western sociological community. It became popular in recent years; however, this approach has not been conceptualized in the Russian sociological school. The paper is devoted to the activity of the «Mixed Methods» Research and Study Group (RSG) that worked at the National Research Institute Higher School of Economics in 2014—2016 and acted in fact as the first interdisciplinary platform to discuss the opportunities and perspectives of this sociological method. The author touches upon the evolution of the mixed methods strategy, the use of proper terminology, pays attention to ethical issues that the social scientists using this tool face and describes the basic results of the work of the RSG.