Foreign experience was studied as part of the Russian travel behavior monitoring study. This paper aims to outline conceptual and methodological differencies between ―travel behavior‖, ―mobility‖ and ―motility‖ terms. The results of analysis allow us to define two projected paths in conceptualization of the key terms. The first, so-called ―management‖ stream, took into account the ―motility‖ concept. On the other hand we outlined the ―academic‖ concept and the fundamental meaning of ―mobility‖. But the widespread use results in terminological confusion. As a result, we treat the conceptualization problem as the main issue: how can we differentiate between these terms, especially in the presence of the ―travel behaviour‖ term. We define the ―travel behaviour‖ as a synthesis of two prospects. The deficit of explanation opportunities are explained through analysis of ―management‖ concept. But ―academic‖ tools seem useful for theory and methodology of transportation studies. Moreover, the understanding of travel behaviour in ―management‖ stream is slightly shifting from economics to social issues.
The period of maternity leave for multi-child mothers is generally longer than as compared with mothers with less number of children, and getting to job after a break in combination with an increased volume of family work is more difficult. When high-resource multi-child mothers return to the labor market, they expect not only a “motherhood penalty”, but also a “penalty” for being over-educated with a high probability. The result of resolving the conflict “motherhood vs work” for them most often is either a complete refusal of employment, or finding more flexible options in the field of precarious work, which often means less high requirements for the level of qualification and, as a result, lower income. Based on the series of in-depth interviews conducted by the author in Moscow and Voronezh with high-resource multi-child parents, including a list of questions about the working trajectories of women and also a number of questions about life practices, it is shown that the reverse side of the full or partial leaving from the labor market of multi-child mothers is intensive parenting and setting a high standard for children's education, including a scrupulous selection of educational institutions and a large amount of additional classes. Thus, the complete or partial loss of high-resource women as workers for the labor market is accompanied by a forthcoming significant non-economic effect, since society receives active translators of human capital to a new generation.
This article considers the subject of interdisciplinary interaction among specialists working in exact and social sciences as a practice of exchanging ideas about social reality; mutual adaptation of these ideas; empirical verification of the universal formal logic rules applied to specific tasks of sociological research. Such formulation of the subject goes beyond the problem of adapting educational programs to “literacy classes” for potential partners. It is maintained that in inter-professional communication it is important to formulate conceptual systems of common use not “in general”, not for all possible cases, but with regard to the problem addressed by consolidated effort. For such conceptual systems we use the term “common language area” according to the ideas of epistemologists (Ilya Kasavin). Elements of these conceptual systems include paradigms, concepts, tools and procedures mobilized for collaborative work. Readers are offered a description of the experience of cooperation between mathematicians and sociologists in 1990–2010s in the qualitative analysis of sociological data — which is an area of concern for both sociology and exact methods. To find a cooperative solution, we needed to develop a system of basic propositions regarding the object and purpose of the research; to put together a structure of sociological data suitable for using the proposed formal tool; to carry out empirical verification of the formalized language of logic-mathematical reasoning. This work has made it possible to explicate the opportunities and limitations when it comes to interpreting results. The article draws conclusions about the specifics of communication in a team of specialists, including sociologists and mathematicians, and about the development of a common language area in the field of cooperation that deals with qualitative analysis of sociological data. Our experience of cooperation in using formalized qualitative analysis of sociological data shows that, when it comes to the need to solve a common problem, partner role relations turned out to be the most effective (rather than role pairs such as “teacher-student” or “seller-buyer”).
The article raises the question of the impact of structural and dynamic characteristics of the community, its “entitativity”, on the willingness to help this community, i.e. on the value attributed to it. Specific hypotheses are formulated in the framework of “psychophysical numbing” research. Experiments showed that presenting “entitative” descriptions of the community produces an ambiguous effect: it can both increase the value of the community as well as decrease. The presence of the description - the "vividness effect" - does not affect the results. The experimental studies enabled the author to make methodological conclusions that may contribute to further progress in this field of research.
The article overviews a theory of the positive political science by Harold D. Lasswell, covering the following topics: social philosophy and positive political science; operationalization of "metaphysical" values; individualism and holism: complementarity of the two approaches; "Democratic" character; psychoanalysis as a method of "clearing" values.
This article investigates the impact of civic engagement on Russian citizens’ propensity to emigrate. Although most of the literature on emigration intentions focuses on economic motives and social advancement objectives, there is a gap in empirical research on the relationship between civic engagement and emigration intentions of Russians. The current research draws on the data from the all–Russia population survey carried out within the framework of the civil society monitoring in 2014. The analysis of the binary logit model revealed that younger and better educated Rus-sians are more likely to declare emigration intentions. The likelihood increases if a person feels resentful about the situation in one’s home country, if he/she believes that the prospects for the country and its economy seem increasingly poor, or if being a Russian citizen evokes a feeling of inadequacy and inferiority. The respondents who think that they can make impact through participation in protest movements are much more likely to declare their intention to emigrate. The analysis provides evidence that citizens declaring their intention to emigrate possess fairly strong capacities for civic engagement. The latter can take many forms such as the commitment to collaborate with other people toward public purposes, participation in the work of NPOs, voicing her or his opinion at public hearings, and ranking the right to information as one of the most important civil rights. These citizens can become engaged actors in the country’s social transformations if their civic potential is called upon. Hence, we can make rec-ommendations to advance institutional channels for civic engagement, including the de-veloped territorial public self–government widely supported by municipalities, a broad spectrum of NPO activities, efficient mechanisms of public control and independent evaluation of the quality of services provided by federal and municipal agencies.