The article is devoted to stimulating activity of human resources in the legal field. The author defines the nature of human behaviour and types of behavioral responses; shows the influence that law consciousness and legal norms make on the variety of social roles; substantiates the suggestions on using some behavioral patterns while legislating and executing the laws.
Government agencies are actively implementing performance measurement instruments (PM). The eﬀect of these instruments on civil servants’ work environment is understudied. This study explores the link between performance measurement system implementation and civil servants’ job satisfaction. We analyze data from a survey of 277 civil servants using structural equation modelling (SEM). Our results show that employees working in organizations with implemented PM systems are more satisfied with their jobs, demonstrate lower turnover intention, and are more result-oriented. These employees also show a higher organizational identification and have a clearer vision of organizational goals. The survey results indicate that PM tools have a significant potential in increasing job satisfaction among civil servants.
The paper addresses the issues of organization of medical care in the Russian Federation and explores the case of specialized medical care restructuring. The new approach towards specialized medical care povision is suggested as an alternative to the prevalent understanding of the restructuring such as reduction of hospital beds, hospitals and their staff for financial reasons. The new approach includes (1) a four-level system of medical aid, (2) the expansion of disease prevention, (3) the introduction of standardized approaches in routine work, (4) a thorough quality control at all levels of medical care.
The pilot project of the restructuring of urologic medical care started in 2010 in Voronezh region. The empirical data were provided by the Institute of Urology (Moscow) and Voronezh Regional Health Department.
The implimentation of a new approach revealed poor performance of the primary medical care provision. The outcomes of the pilot project were an increase in detecting diseases and in the availability of specialized outpatient and inpatient care. The overcoming of the previous system’s flaws caused the need to increase health care costs. However, the introduction of new organizational technologies, providing urological care, resulted in lower unit costs by 21.7% over four years.
Experience of the structural reform presented in the article shows that in cases where inefficiency of the health care system is associated not only with unreasonably high costs for treatment of diseases, but also with insufficient or delayed detectability of diseases, introduction of new approaches to the organization of health care does not lead to saving costs, but to increasing effectiveness and efficiency of health care provision.
The importance of developing small enterprise at all levels (federal, regional, municipal)is pressing in Russia now. Solving this matter is seen to be a possibilityto speed up modernization of the economy in Russia, to transfer it to an innovativeway of development and to fi nd more effi cient models to support small enterprise.Since forming small enterprise takes place at the municipal level, it is therethat our attention must be focused on.Th e author singles out three main stages of the interaction of small businesswith local authorities: the fi rst stage (from 1990 to 2003) is a period of an activesearch for models of support; the second stage (from 2003 to 2007) is a period oflocal government reforms an its further development; the third stage (from early2008 to the present time) is a period of passive activity of the local administrationbodies and limited possibilities to support small enterprise. Th e article also characterizesthese three stages.
The government eff ectiveness increase remains a challengeable task in the current management research and practice agenda for the last decade. At the same time experts rather oft en propose as a solution tool for this task a formalized and complete description of federal executive authorities’ activity. The goal of this paper is the development of the automated federal authorities’ powers registry conception as a means to describe executive authorities’ activity. Th e registry implementation will help to realize the transfer to a new order of resource support for government authorities’ activity. In this paper we demonstrate the conception of legal regulation for the Registry (doing changes in President’s Order of March 9, 2004 № 314 «About a System and Structure of Federal Executive Authorities») and means of its update. Th e authors propose to manage the Registry in the format of government information system. The links between the Registry and other relevant government information systems are outlined as well. We describe possible attributes in the Registry. We design a mechanism for relationship establishment by means of the Registry between federal authorities’ powers and their provision process with personnel and fi nancial resources (including necessary changes in budgetary process).
The issue of the state machinery optimal size remains actual until now. The experts' community has reached the agreement on the necessity to decrease the size of government and increase its activity effectiveness. Unfortunately, it is not enough to have the quantitative assessments that not only confirm the actuality of the task emphasized above but also reflect the dynamic change of the government size. In order to obtain such assessment the federal executive bodies’ powers inventory took place at the end of 2016. In the inventory process 10.4 thousand federal executive bodies powers were outlined. This is 45% more than in 2010 and practically is twice as more than in 2003. The article provides the complete quantitative analysis of powers in different aspects including the dimensions of federal executive bodies, functional classification, government bodies’ types, sources of powers fixation and budgetary classification areas. In addition, in order to systematize the obtained results from the federal executive bodies’ powers analysis we provide the definition of the term “federal executive body power” and functional classification that includes twenty basic types. The classification described in the article can be applied in practice in order to form the federal executive bodies’ powers system and their allocated resources capacity.
A lot of legislations are made in the process of public administration, municipalmanagement and economic activity of the respective offices. Th oughthese acts of legislation help to solve important aspects of socio-economic development,their quality does not provide effective management, regulation andmonitoring. Th e eff orts made to prepare and pass the bills are not always adequatetheir realization actions and analysis of their eff ects. A group of scientists fromthe Institute of Legislations Research and some law professors (U.A.Tihomirov,E.V. Cherepanova, B.M. Baranov) analyze this hypothesis within the frame work of the theme “Monitoring is a means to analyze the effects of normativelegal acts”. Th e research is provided by the program of fundamental scientifi cresearches of the State University – Higher School of Economics. Th e articleconsiders the results of the research.
The new principles of the territorial structure of local self-government became effective in Russia on 1 January 2006. Since then, the number of municipalities with the status of a rural settlement has steadily declined, and by January 1, 2014 had dropped by more than 1,800, or almost 10%. This was primarily the result of large-scale campaigns on consolidating rural municipalities which took place in some regions. Currently, there are quite a few cases when only two or three rural settlements remain in a whole district (a constituent entity of the Russian Federation generally consists of 20 to 30 districts). Each rural settlement may include several dozens or even hundreds of villages and cover an area exceeding a thousand square kilometers. Not only did some of the abolished municipalities lose their own independent local self-government bodies, they no longer have any authorities on their territory. The article addresses the implications of such territorial and administrative changes with emphasis on the perception of such processes by the rural inhabitants. Forty-four non-formalized, semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 55 villagers and representatives of the local self-government bodies of the rural settlements served as empirical evidence. The author took the interviews during research expeditions across six regions of European Russia in 2009–2013. The article depicts and analyzes the reasons, procedure, and implications of the enlargement of rural settlements, as well as the principal complaints of the residents of the affected villages. According to them, the main problem is the focus of the new authorities exclusively on the administrative center. The author provides specific recommendations as to the transformation approach and procedure. The article is intended for the authorities of municipal districts and settlements, as well as regional and federal legislators.
The article examines the international experience of using behavioral tools for increasing the effectiveness of public administration and assesses the prospects of their implementation in the Russian rulemaking practice. The first part provides a brief overview of the development of the theoretical framework of “nudge” and examines differences between the behavioral economy and the classical and neoclassical economic theory. Then, the authors describe practical cases of the application of behavioral «nudging» in various areas of regulation. The third part of the article concerns the experience of institutionalization of «nudging» at the state level in selected OECD countries and emerging countries, including a description of the specifics of the development and performance of specialized bodies (units) in leading states. The conclusion summarizes the prospects for, firstly, enriching the public administration theory with behavioral approaches, and, secondly, for institutionalization of behavioral insight unit within the Russian government.
Th e paper analyses homeowners associations (HOAs) in Russia. Systematization of the 20 years’ trends in housing and communal services reform is given. Problems of HOA formation are analyzed and three periods with diff erent patterns of HOA creation are defi ned. Time interval between early 1990th and 2005 is proposed to be the fi rst period and is characterized as having a slow growth of HOAs, the absence of a clear campaign in favor of HOA creation, and a passive role of homeowners reluctant to form HOAs. Th e second period is defi ned from 2005 to 2011 and described as demonstrating a boost of the HOA formation and a big share of faked HOAs. Th e third period is designated from 2012 and featured with the liquidation of HOAs, both faked and viable. Overall it’s argued that the HOA dynamics is determined by stimulating bonuses or suppressing constrains. Homeowners’ self-organization and pure initiative are less pronounced. Numerous problems that HOAs experience are referred to several groups and analyzed in detail. Among them are immaturity of tenants and lack of social capital in apartment buildings; wear and tear of the housing stock and heterogeneity of tenants’ composition; legislative obstacles and problems of law enforcement; monopolization and state capture of the vital for HOA life markets of housing and communal services as well as management companies.
Since September 2007, the Russian regions have received an opportunity to set regional minimum wages (RMW) based on negotiations between trade unions, employers, and local governments. This reform radically changed the system of minimum wages increasing the role of collective bargaining at the regional level. The existing legislation gives the regions substantial freedom to decide on the form of tripartite agreement, the size of RMW and the coverage of different groups of employees. The reform gave rise to a plenty of institutional experiments at the regional level. Over the last eight years, more than 4/5 of the Russian regions got experience with the RMW. In this paper, we study the evolution of this labor market institution in 2007-2015 focusing on regional variation of minimum wage policies. We demonstrate that the most important differences between regions are related to the following features: setting the uniform RMW or different RMWs for the budgetary and non-budgetary sectors; setting the RMW via general tripartite agreement or via special agreement on the RMW; tying the RMW to the regional subsistence level.
The article uses the 2009 pool data of 1000 processing factories to consider relationship between the government and businesses and the diff erence in priorities of providing fi rms and business enterprises with the state support by public management bodies at federal, regional and municipal level. The regressive analysis results in the suggestion which substantiates the domineering position of the “model of exchanges” (unlike the “model of takeover” typical of 1990-s), more inclination of the regional authorities to support the businesses involved in modernization processes.
The involvement of nonprofit organizations (NPOs) in the delivery of a diversity of social welfare services is an important element of various models of a “welfare mix” approach to the transformation of the modern welfare state. According to the concepts of “third party government” and of “nonprofitization” of the welfare state such involvement allows to ease budgetary constraints while enhancing the effectiveness and quality of services delivered. This article is aimed at assessing the outlook for SONPOs in the emerging Russian market for social services funded by the state. The authors primarily analyze the vector of transformation of the regulatory and legal framework providing for the participation of SONPOs in the delivery of state funded social services with the aim to assess how strong the interest of the state to diversify the range of service providers in the social sectors is. The analysis of legal norms is combined with a look at empirical data featuring the attitudes of Russian NPO leaders to cooperation with the state in solving social problems which is an indicator of the likely “responsiveness” of the NPO community to government policy aimed at increasing cross-sectoral cooperation in the delivery of social services. Then the authors proceed with investigating the comparative advantages of NPOs as providers of social services in the light of the concepts of cross-sectoral partnership and welfare mix arrangements in the social sphere. In the article an attempt is then made to test or at least to illustrate in the Russian context the likely validity of the comparative advantages of NOPs as prompted by the mentioned concepts rooted in the “third party government” theory. For this purposes sociological data are used, gathered in the course of a long-term NRU HSE project on Monitoring Russian Civil Society. In conclusion the authors formulate several measures necessary to implement in order that Russian SONPOs can take due advantage of the recent innovative regulation and increase their share as providers of social services funded by the state.
Involving non-profit organizations (NPOs) in providing state and municipal services in the social sphere (including education, healthcare, culture and social policy, physical culture and sport, mass media) has been a priority of Russia’s social policy for the past several years. However, there has been no significant progress achieved in dealing with this issue, as evidenced by the fact that the need for such involvement has been repeatedly underlined in the speech of the President of Russian Federation addressed to the Federal Assembly (2013-2015). According to statistics, the volume of subsidiaries allocated to private organizations in the social sphere amounted to only 40 billion rubles in 2015 or 1.6% of the total funds allocated to this area in the federal budget. In comparison with 2013, it decreased by almost 15%. The article presents the results of a research of socioeconomic mechanisms of involving NPOs in providing services in the social sphere. This article considers more specifically the level of real functioning of these mechanisms in the subjects of Russian Federation, through analyzing the indicators of amount and structure of the budget allocations to NPOs. These mechanisms are analyzed on the federal and regional levels through the scope of: a) the rights (and the duties) of the state (municipal) authorities to involve NPOs in providing social services at the expenses of budget funds; b) the procedures of service providers selection; c) the method (tool) of NPOs budgeting. The article specifies deficiencies of these mechanisms that determine obstacles to a wider involvement of NPOs in providing social services. One of these obstacles is the low "status" of the services provided by NPOs. Today, they are often not formally related to the state (municipal) services ensuring the realization of social guarantees.