The issue of the state machinery optimal size remains actual until now. The experts' community has reached the agreement on the necessity to decrease the size of government and increase its activity effectiveness. Unfortunately, it is not enough to have the quantitative assessments that not only confirm the actuality of the task emphasized above but also reflect the dynamic change of the government size. In order to obtain such assessment the federal executive bodies’ powers inventory took place at the end of 2016. In the inventory process 10.4 thousand federal executive bodies powers were outlined. This is 45% more than in 2010 and practically is twice as more than in 2003. The article provides the complete quantitative analysis of powers in different aspects including the dimensions of federal executive bodies, functional classification, government bodies’ types, sources of powers fixation and budgetary classification areas. In addition, in order to systematize the obtained results from the federal executive bodies’ powers analysis we provide the definition of the term “federal executive body power” and functional classification that includes twenty basic types. The classification described in the article can be applied in practice in order to form the federal executive bodies’ powers system and their allocated resources capacity.
A lot of legislations are made in the process of public administration, municipalmanagement and economic activity of the respective offices. Th oughthese acts of legislation help to solve important aspects of socio-economic development,their quality does not provide effective management, regulation andmonitoring. Th e eff orts made to prepare and pass the bills are not always adequatetheir realization actions and analysis of their eff ects. A group of scientists fromthe Institute of Legislations Research and some law professors (U.A.Tihomirov,E.V. Cherepanova, B.M. Baranov) analyze this hypothesis within the frame work of the theme “Monitoring is a means to analyze the effects of normativelegal acts”. Th e research is provided by the program of fundamental scientifi cresearches of the State University – Higher School of Economics. Th e articleconsiders the results of the research.
The new principles of the territorial structure of local self-government became effective in Russia on 1 January 2006. Since then, the number of municipalities with the status of a rural settlement has steadily declined, and by January 1, 2014 had dropped by more than 1,800, or almost 10%. This was primarily the result of large-scale campaigns on consolidating rural municipalities which took place in some regions. Currently, there are quite a few cases when only two or three rural settlements remain in a whole district (a constituent entity of the Russian Federation generally consists of 20 to 30 districts). Each rural settlement may include several dozens or even hundreds of villages and cover an area exceeding a thousand square kilometers. Not only did some of the abolished municipalities lose their own independent local self-government bodies, they no longer have any authorities on their territory. The article addresses the implications of such territorial and administrative changes with emphasis on the perception of such processes by the rural inhabitants. Forty-four non-formalized, semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 55 villagers and representatives of the local self-government bodies of the rural settlements served as empirical evidence. The author took the interviews during research expeditions across six regions of European Russia in 2009–2013. The article depicts and analyzes the reasons, procedure, and implications of the enlargement of rural settlements, as well as the principal complaints of the residents of the affected villages. According to them, the main problem is the focus of the new authorities exclusively on the administrative center. The author provides specific recommendations as to the transformation approach and procedure. The article is intended for the authorities of municipal districts and settlements, as well as regional and federal legislators.
The article examines the international experience of using behavioral tools for increasing the effectiveness of public administration and assesses the prospects of their implementation in the Russian rulemaking practice. The first part provides a brief overview of the development of the theoretical framework of “nudge” and examines differences between the behavioral economy and the classical and neoclassical economic theory. Then, the authors describe practical cases of the application of behavioral «nudging» in various areas of regulation. The third part of the article concerns the experience of institutionalization of «nudging» at the state level in selected OECD countries and emerging countries, including a description of the specifics of the development and performance of specialized bodies (units) in leading states. The conclusion summarizes the prospects for, firstly, enriching the public administration theory with behavioral approaches, and, secondly, for institutionalization of behavioral insight unit within the Russian government.
Th e paper analyses homeowners associations (HOAs) in Russia. Systematization of the 20 years’ trends in housing and communal services reform is given. Problems of HOA formation are analyzed and three periods with diff erent patterns of HOA creation are defi ned. Time interval between early 1990th and 2005 is proposed to be the fi rst period and is characterized as having a slow growth of HOAs, the absence of a clear campaign in favor of HOA creation, and a passive role of homeowners reluctant to form HOAs. Th e second period is defi ned from 2005 to 2011 and described as demonstrating a boost of the HOA formation and a big share of faked HOAs. Th e third period is designated from 2012 and featured with the liquidation of HOAs, both faked and viable. Overall it’s argued that the HOA dynamics is determined by stimulating bonuses or suppressing constrains. Homeowners’ self-organization and pure initiative are less pronounced. Numerous problems that HOAs experience are referred to several groups and analyzed in detail. Among them are immaturity of tenants and lack of social capital in apartment buildings; wear and tear of the housing stock and heterogeneity of tenants’ composition; legislative obstacles and problems of law enforcement; monopolization and state capture of the vital for HOA life markets of housing and communal services as well as management companies.
Since September 2007, the Russian regions have received an opportunity to set regional minimum wages (RMW) based on negotiations between trade unions, employers, and local governments. This reform radically changed the system of minimum wages increasing the role of collective bargaining at the regional level. The existing legislation gives the regions substantial freedom to decide on the form of tripartite agreement, the size of RMW and the coverage of different groups of employees. The reform gave rise to a plenty of institutional experiments at the regional level. Over the last eight years, more than 4/5 of the Russian regions got experience with the RMW. In this paper, we study the evolution of this labor market institution in 2007-2015 focusing on regional variation of minimum wage policies. We demonstrate that the most important differences between regions are related to the following features: setting the uniform RMW or different RMWs for the budgetary and non-budgetary sectors; setting the RMW via general tripartite agreement or via special agreement on the RMW; tying the RMW to the regional subsistence level.
The article uses the 2009 pool data of 1000 processing factories to consider relationship between the government and businesses and the diff erence in priorities of providing fi rms and business enterprises with the state support by public management bodies at federal, regional and municipal level. The regressive analysis results in the suggestion which substantiates the domineering position of the “model of exchanges” (unlike the “model of takeover” typical of 1990-s), more inclination of the regional authorities to support the businesses involved in modernization processes.
The involvement of nonprofit organizations (NPOs) in the delivery of a diversity of social welfare services is an important element of various models of a “welfare mix” approach to the transformation of the modern welfare state. According to the concepts of “third party government” and of “nonprofitization” of the welfare state such involvement allows to ease budgetary constraints while enhancing the effectiveness and quality of services delivered. This article is aimed at assessing the outlook for SONPOs in the emerging Russian market for social services funded by the state. The authors primarily analyze the vector of transformation of the regulatory and legal framework providing for the participation of SONPOs in the delivery of state funded social services with the aim to assess how strong the interest of the state to diversify the range of service providers in the social sectors is. The analysis of legal norms is combined with a look at empirical data featuring the attitudes of Russian NPO leaders to cooperation with the state in solving social problems which is an indicator of the likely “responsiveness” of the NPO community to government policy aimed at increasing cross-sectoral cooperation in the delivery of social services. Then the authors proceed with investigating the comparative advantages of NPOs as providers of social services in the light of the concepts of cross-sectoral partnership and welfare mix arrangements in the social sphere. In the article an attempt is then made to test or at least to illustrate in the Russian context the likely validity of the comparative advantages of NOPs as prompted by the mentioned concepts rooted in the “third party government” theory. For this purposes sociological data are used, gathered in the course of a long-term NRU HSE project on Monitoring Russian Civil Society. In conclusion the authors formulate several measures necessary to implement in order that Russian SONPOs can take due advantage of the recent innovative regulation and increase their share as providers of social services funded by the state.
Involving non-profit organizations (NPOs) in providing state and municipal services in the social sphere (including education, healthcare, culture and social policy, physical culture and sport, mass media) has been a priority of Russia’s social policy for the past several years. However, there has been no significant progress achieved in dealing with this issue, as evidenced by the fact that the need for such involvement has been repeatedly underlined in the speech of the President of Russian Federation addressed to the Federal Assembly (2013-2015). According to statistics, the volume of subsidiaries allocated to private organizations in the social sphere amounted to only 40 billion rubles in 2015 or 1.6% of the total funds allocated to this area in the federal budget. In comparison with 2013, it decreased by almost 15%. The article presents the results of a research of socioeconomic mechanisms of involving NPOs in providing services in the social sphere. This article considers more specifically the level of real functioning of these mechanisms in the subjects of Russian Federation, through analyzing the indicators of amount and structure of the budget allocations to NPOs. These mechanisms are analyzed on the federal and regional levels through the scope of: a) the rights (and the duties) of the state (municipal) authorities to involve NPOs in providing social services at the expenses of budget funds; b) the procedures of service providers selection; c) the method (tool) of NPOs budgeting. The article specifies deficiencies of these mechanisms that determine obstacles to a wider involvement of NPOs in providing social services. One of these obstacles is the low "status" of the services provided by NPOs. Today, they are often not formally related to the state (municipal) services ensuring the realization of social guarantees.
In connection with the increased attention of the State to the involvement of NPOs into providing services in social sectors, the Federal and regional legislation regulating the orders (procedures) for selecting social service providers is analyzed. The authors verify the hypothesis that these orders, which now are approved within all branches of the social sphere, have serious deficiencies that adversely affect the transparency of the above-mentioned procedures. Regional legislation is considered in relation to 15 specially selected subjects of the Russian Federation.
There are three types of selection procedures for social service providers: 1) competitive selection, 2) non-alternative choice of service provider by the customer, 3) the choice of the service provider by the consumer, including through the use of certificates. These orders are analyzed through the following components: the categories of suppliers from which selection is made; "input" requirements, that is, the requirements that the organization must satisfy in order to be admitted for selection; requirements for the customer (state or municipal authority) to submit information on the selection and selection results; selection criteria (for the competition); requirements for the procedure for reviewing and evaluating the proposals of participants (for the competition). The study confirmed the proposed hypothesis, and the flaws that adversely affect the transparency of the selection procedures exist for each of the indicated components.
Involving non-profit organizations (NPOs) in providing state and municipal services in the social sphere (including education, healthcare, culture and social policy, physical culture and sport, mass media) has been a priority of Russia’s social policy for the past several years. However, there has been no significant progress achieved in dealing with this issue, as evidenced by the fact that the need for such involvement has been repeatedly underlined in the speech of the President of Russian Federation addressed to the Federal Assembly (2013-2015). According to statistics, the volume of subsidiaries allocated to private organizations in the social sphere amounted to only 40 billion rubles in 2015 or 1.6% of the total funds allocated to this area in the federal budget. In comparison with 2013, it decreased by almost 15%.
The article presents the results of a research of socioeconomic mechanisms of involving NPOs in providing services in the social sphere. This article considers more specifically the level of real functioning of these mechanisms in the subjects of Russian Federation, through analyzing the indicators of amount and structure of the budget allocations to NPOs. These mechanisms are analyzed on the federal and regional levels through the scope of: a) the rights (and the duties) of the state (municipal) authorities to involve NPOs in providing social services at the expenses of budget funds; b) the procedures of service providers selection; c) the method (tool) of NPOs budgeting.
The article specifies deficiencies of these mechanisms that determine obstacles to a wider involvement of NPOs in providing social services. One of these obstacles is the low "status" of the services provided by NPOs. Today, they are often not formally related to the state (municipal) services ensuring the realization of social guarantees.
The article analyses the problems connected with using outsourcing in state service activity in the Russian Federation; gives a precise definition to the state services; offers notions of the state service and its service produce; points out the most perspective for outsourcing functoins of the state service.
Outcomes of key performance indicators application for the assessment of public authority performance are ambiguous. Theory of incentive contracts as well as international experience highlight the difficulties and possible externalities of KPI setting for public authority. Motivation system often distorts the incentives of public authorities, and applied indicators do not correctly reflect the priorities of enforcement for the society. One specific example is the assessment of performance of the Russian competition authority. In the paper we analyze the peculiarities of formation of ratio of the infringement decisions coming into legal force to all the infringement decisions made by competition authorities applied as one of key performance indicators. Using the data of the database of judicial reviews of infringement decisions, we show that the assessment of FAS performance based on the share of infringement decisions coming into legal force, distorts the incentives of the authority substantially. It motivates competition authority for making the large number of infringement decisions with the low probability to reverse but the low positive impact on consumer surplus and total welfare.
The article deals with an approach which is quite new for public administrationresearch, that of psychological analysis of public administration institutions,using the concept of social identity. Th e article focuses on the development of theapproach in psychology, and its applicability for studying relationship betweenindividuals and groups of people in an institution.
Focus of sociology in studies of Russian local self-government is within bounds of different aspects of interpretation of «local self-government» concept. Author deals with the social aspect, when main issue is a subject of local self-government. Relevance of this theme is determined by that the solving of problems of institutionalization of public associations objectively appears as a factor of local self-government institute development. Elaboration of strategies for sustainable development of municipalities, taking into consideration regional particularity and on the basis of implementation of new management technologies, also is needed. Information base of this work is formed, at first, by the results of sociologic poll of heads of more then 3,000 municipalities of all types from 60 subjects of Russian Federation, conducted in 2007 under initiative of Russian National Congress of Municipalities with organizational support of regional councils of municipal entities. Preparation of study program, toolkit and analysis of obtained results were made by the author. Secondly, it is formed by the results of all-Russia representative poll of population conducted by State University Higher School of Economics (HSE) within framework of monitoring of civil society status in Russian Federation. Factors interfering with active involvement of population to the solving of problems of local life are investigated. Motives of involvement of population into social life as well as participation in events organized on the place of living are specified in the article. Quantitative assessments of social basis of local self-government and its qualitative evaluation are given. Places of activisation of population's involvement to the solving of local problems, enhancement of attention to population's opinion and its reckoning on managerial decision-making level in general hierarchy of opportunities for improvement of social and economic situation of the Russian municipalities are shown. Occurrences of different types of population's involvement into the local self-government, and also degree of population's influence on the solving of problems of local life were analyzed according to evaluation of municipality heads and population. It is shown that in conditions, when the problems of formation of social basis of local self-government hardly will become an object of governmental care and attention, it is absolutely naturally, that municipal authorities promote by themselves the public's involvement to the solving of local problems, and establish partner relations with public and other non-governmental non-profit organizations daily making its contribution into the social and economic development of municipalities and improvement of population's life quality. Thus, the assistance to formation of institutes of civil society on the territory of municipalities should become one of the tasks for local self-government. However discussion on civil society in scope of concrete municipalities allows considerable dose of indetermination for application of this concept, to eliminate which the author's introduction of concept «civil community» allows. Formation of civil communities is not the task for population «in general». According to HSE polls, only 7% of Russians feel their full responsibility for situation that happens in their city (village, settlement). However each fifth feels his full responsibility for situation that happens in his house and courtyard, and 28% of Russians feel their significant responsibility for that. It is the extra argument for development and realization of objective-oriented programs of public activity escalation in the Russian municipalities, in order to guide potential of self-organizing of population for help to local government authorities in the solving of local problems that in conditions of limited resources acquires special significance.
The paper applies approaches of the New Institutional Economics to the issue of attracting experts to implementation of public administration functions. Classification of expert knowledge by source and field of application is proposed. Characteristics of different parties to the transactions are described, and approaches are suggested to address the problem of credible commitments of the parties to the transactions concerning expert knowledge, in view of key structural alternatives of governance mechanisms. Several issues to be addressed in future research have been stated.