The paper provides an overview of studies dedicated to correlations between school teacher salaries and regional economics and to the local factors affecting the size of teacher salaries. The paper describes the basic teacher pay indicators in the regions: absolute salary, teacher pay level as compared to the average regional salary, ratio of salary to the average consumer bsket and to the per capita gross regional product. Based on the calculations performed using open databases of governmental authorities, a classification of regions by teacher pay levels was developed, providing seven clusters of regions. For each of the clusters, we have elaborated recommendations on teacher remuneration, identifying typical risks and challenges. These recommendations are designed to improve efficiency of activities that are part of the education policy by way of differentiating federal assistance. The conclusion is that, apart from the index of teacher pay level as compared to the average regional salary, which is the benchmark of governmental programs, one should also consider the ratios of salary to the average consumer basket and to the per capita gross regional product.
The last three decades have seen an increase in researchers’ interest in international comparative assessments of educational outcomes, particularly at the level of secondary schools. Achieving cross-national comparability is the main methodological challenge in the design of such studies. Cross-national comparability of test scores implies that the measure operates similarly across all the participating countries, regardless of their linguistic and cultural differences. The process of achieving cross-national comparability in higher education is more complicated due to specific features of higher education. This article explores the modern understanding of cross-national comparability of student assessment results and the possible ways of achieving it. It analyzes the specific aspects of higher education that complicate standardized measurement of educational outcomes and trivial achievement of cross-national comparability. The process of designing and conducting the Study of Undergraduate Performance—an international comparative research project aimed to assess and compare higher engineering education across nations—is described as an example of overcoming those challenges.
The author describes the principal stages in the development of research in profession prestige since the emergence of the field in 1925 and up to the recent publications of 2006. The key phenomenon uncovered in the course of the research is that the relative rating of prestigious professions remains almost independent of research technique, surveyed group, time or place. More precise recent studies showed that profession prestige does exhibit small dynamics, but nevertheless remains fairly stable. However, studies of this type are practically non-existent in Russia. The author offers a very general picture of the concept of profession prestige as it emerged in Western sociology after hundreds of studies. The conclusion of the article is that research on profession prestige is highly desirable in Russia. It is of use both for practical purposes (for education and professional orientation, or as an objective stratification parameter, for all social sciences) and as an independent topic of study.
Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education research indicates a gender gap in how students perceive their mathematical ability. Even when there are no gender disparities in math achievement, girls tend to have lower expectations of success and lower self-reported proficiency in the subject than boys. Empirical findings show that development of growth mindset could bridge the gender gap in students’ perceptions of their mathematical ability and enhance girls’ interest in math. Formative feedback is one of the possible tools to foster the development of growth mindsets.
This study investigates the impact of an e-learning platform with automated feedback on the development of growth mindsets in elementary school children. Empirical data was collected during an experiment which involved 6,300 third-grade students from 343 regional schools in Russia. Statistically significant differences were revealed between students in the control group and those who used the e-learning platform (experimental group). However, the effects of using the platform were significantly lower for girls than boys.
The results obtained in this study point to the great potential of e-learning platforms with instant feedback in fostering growth mindsets in mathematics among elementary school children. Furthermore, it appears vital to integrate tailored feedback for boys and girls to mitigate gender differences in school math education.
The article considers the outcomes of a large scale experiment on rural school restructuring that took place in 18 of Russia.s regions. The obtained results provide convincing evidence that education centers and sociocultural complexes created in the course of the experiment have considerable advantages over traditional types of institutions. Further development of the sociocultural centers. network is hampered by the lack of a legislative base for their functioning, as well as by difficulties of co-ordination between various government bodies and different budgets.
The article deals with basic specific institutional features of professional training in coordinated and liberal economies. The author thinks that the specifics of labor market institutes have become one of the basic factors that shape models of professional training. One of the principle directions of evaluation of these models is checking whether they are up to challenges of the modern economy. The mechanisms of providing of education services in various countries is primarily determined by the choice of funding sources, the ratio between general and specialized knowledge, and specifics of the knowledge certification systems.
The article provides results of a sociological study of management patterns applied to secondary schools in modern Russia. Focus groups with school principals were organized in eight pilot regions of Russia in October—November 2014. The project aimed at constructing a typology of management patterns, which we regard as a configuration of relations associated with teaching process management. Four basic patterns were singled out: “authoritarian manager”, “democratic manager”, “authoritarian leader” and “democratic leader”. They were built together following the merge of two criteria: delegation regimes, i. e. steady patterns of interrelation between principals and other subjects and agents of management, as well as subjectivity of principals, i. e. their ability to independently determine and implement the organization’s mission. Each pattern is described based on the example of FGOS (Federal State Educational Standard) introduction in elementary schools. It is demonstrated that the choice of a specific management pattern is determined by a wide range of factors and is situational, i. e. depends on the goal and context of management activities. Potential of the identified management patterns is discussed in terms of efficient implementation of reforms.
World Bank data shows that education accounts for, on average, 13% of government expenditure in the world, effective spending being a priority. Position in international academic rankings has been a universally accepted, yet criticized, criterion of institutional effectiveness. No consistent positive correlation was revealed during research on how the size of government subsidies affected university ranking. Assessment methodology is adjusted to study the influence of public funding mechanisms on university ranking. Three mechanisms are investigated: formula based funding, performance based funding, and negotiated funding. The sample includes 107 European universities from 27 countries. For each of them, information on the funding model (or a combination of models), total annual revenue, proportion of public subsidies, ranking and ranking movements over the last decade is collected. Analysis results are used to group universities into two major categories: low-ranking universities (ranked in the top 200–500), which are mostly funded using formal mechanisms (formula- and performance based funding), and high-rankings universities (the top 100), which largely use the negotiated funding model (either alone or combined with formal models). This confirms previous research findings that the size of government subsidies has no impact on university ranking. A qualitative analysis of higher education funding patterns in Russia is performed. Formalization of all sources of university funding has become a major trend, yet this empirical study demonstrates that prioritization of formal criteria may be ineffective if Russian universities want to reach their ambitious goals of making it to the top 100 in international rankings.
The article explores the advantages and pitfalls of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) as reported by participants of professional development programs on creating and using online courses sponsored by the Institute of Distance Education of Tomsk State University during a brainstorming session within one of the programs and during communication in a nonpublic online course forum within the other. It is established that instructors see MOOC advantages in the opportunity to provide better organization of the learning process and additional study materials, higher education accessibility and academic mobility, realization of instructors’ career and personal goals, and resource efficiency. MOOC pitfalls are associated by the participants with pedagogical imperfection of the format, special requirements for the education system, resource intensiveness, and career risks for instructors.