Recently, the valuation of intellectual capital is one of the urgent problems of financial management. This is due to the complexity of determining cash flows and discount rates. The proposed method solves these problems by using the approach based on the logic of the value chain. Draw conclusions on whether the analyzed company-oriented personnel or relies on its key asset, as well as what share of the value of the company generates intellectual capital.
This paper features a non-parametric DEA method and its practical applications for the efficiency estimation of the Rus-sian companies managing pension funds. Theoretical aspects of the five DEA models are studied, including: the constant returns to scale model (CRS); increasing, decreasing and varying returns to scale (DRS, IRS and VRS), and the free dis-posal hull (FDH). A comparative analysis of the models features an example of 39 pension funds management compa-nies from the 2004 to 2016. The efficiency has been estimated taking into account the management companies specific. The financial indicators responsible for the financial activity of the companies have been studied along with those of the pension fund portfolio management. The model under consideration is characterized by one input variable (the invest-ment amount in the first quarter) and three output variables: net assets value (NVA), return on investment (quarterly), and the account balance at a credit organization. The external factors that have impact on the company performance in the sector have been the focus of the recent research, rather than the company efficiency estimation itself. The returns and the risk of the company portfolio, as well as the net assets and the crisis indicators of the economy have been chosen as the qualitative criteria for estimating the efficiency of the companies.The selected DEA algorithm modifications can be used for further investment and management decision making process.
The topic of payout policy significance in terms of value creation has been developing for 50 years already. This development has led to the establishment classic theories that explain different patterns in the companies’ payout policy choices: signaling, agency costs theory, clientele theory and catering theory. However, tests results are not always consistent among different authors, which means that these theories cannot be used universally. Classic theories assume that all agents on the market are fully rational, which is rather unrealistic. These two facts led to the development of behavioral explanation of the payout policy choice. This approach focuses on the behavioral characteristics of managers that are responsible for the decision-making process in the company. Thus, the payout policy according to this approach is considered as the function of behavioral characteristics of managers (overconfidence, optimism, risk preferences, etc.) rather than the function of the financial variables.
This particular article is the review of researches that cover classic and modern theories of payout policy. The article covers the logic of the development of different views on the payout policy. The author covers articles that test different theories, analyzes main results and conclusions, investigates the reasons for the development of these theories. The main focus has been made on the behavioral approach which is considered as the most fruitful direction for the future research. The authors also cover the methodology of existing papers, variables that measure behavioral characteristics and results.
There is a common opinion in Russian business practice that writing business plans is an easy task with the help of COMFAR or Project Expert softwears, and it is not a big deal to compare different business plans once project financial summaries are available. However, one crucial issue is missing in such approach. Business-plan is an intellectual product, reflecting private investor interests, skills and experience. It is also a perishable product as its financial summaries are based on current economic assumptions. Tomorrow there will be new assumptions and accordingly new business plan summary is required. As such, private business implementation of modern technologies, best business practices and environment protection are among the most important criteria in state budget financing process but not a formal benchmarking of investment plans.
This paper reports the results of foreign surveys with respect to the use of capital budgeting techniques by Chief Financial Officers (CFOs) in different countries. Also this paper analyses different factors and conditions which affect the choice of capital budgeting technique.
This paper is concerned with stock liquidity as a factor in making capital structure decisions by managers of Russian firms. Although a big number of studies on capital structure occurred over the last few decades, stock liquidity has only recently attracted scholars’ attention as a possible driver for the choice of capital structure. Yet the existing papers are based on data from the developed capital markets. The latter differ substantially from the Russian market in terms of institutional environment and more liquid stocks. Against the background of revisions in the Russian clearing system that are expected to boost liquidity of stocks, this paper gains in currency.
The theoretic mechanisms behind the interplay of stock liquidity and capital structure are discussed in previous studies. Lower stock liquidity is associated with higher transaction costs and informational asymmetry, and thus with higher required return. Therefore it is assumed that the managers aiming at firm value maximization would prefer debt to equity financing in case if stock is not liquid enough. There are also theoretic grounds to expect an opposite impact of capital structure on stock liquidity.
The presented article describes the justification of major reasons for securitization, followed by the history of future-flow securitizations by the developing countries and the evaluation of the potential for each asset class. Given the sharp rise in workers' remittances to developing countries in recent years and concerns that such flows may not really be good for the recipient countries, the article then examines the role that securitization can play in magnifying the development impact of remittances. In conclusion there is a description of the constraints that inhibit the issuance of debt backed by future-flow receivables and an exploration of the remedial role for public policy.
Regarding today’s unstable economic situation the issue of correctly evaluation of existing financial statements of the company and forecasting it`s development potential is very important both for the company and for the rest of the market players. Within the framework of this research the evaluation of the bankruptcy probability of the company in the oil and gas sector has been considered. For now oil&gas sector remains the most stable and conservative due to the specific end products produced and business organization model. In the meantime there are some relatively small (comparing to the transcontinental companies) oil&gas companies, which business is not under governmental insurance or under the shelter of the host company. For such companies, sustaining financial stability is a real challenge. That is why economic shocks often conduce their bankruptcy.
The determinants of the bankruptcy probability in this research were the following financial data: profitability, liquidity, financial leverage, turnover ratio. Theoretical analysis has proven that financial leverage correlates with the other model data (marketability, liquidity and the turnover ratio). This issue has been proved through data output. The highest was correlation between financial leverage and liquidity (34%). Changing this variable to its own deviation from the industry mean (taking absolute value) the problem of multicollinearity has been solved. However, according to the model results, this variable only slightly affects the bankruptcy probability. Over all profitability has the most magnitude, which corresponds the other researcher’s conclusion: stable company can be characterized through high liquidity, high profitability and low financial leverage deviation from its standard. So that the empirical analysis has shown, that test hypothesizes can be executed on the principal variables (profitability, liquidity and financial leverage). Such variable as rate of income tax indicates the social-economic development of the country, in which the company operates, than a factor of bankruptcy.
This article is the first part of the historical review of the occurrence and development of concep- tual approaches to measuring goodwill in economic science since the end of the 19 century to the 70-ies of 20 century. The problem of goodwill measurement arose in economic science at the end of the 19th century and still discussed in the academic and practitioner communities around the world. Despite numerous studies and the adoption of accounting standards issued by various pro- fessional organizations internationally, existing opinions on this issue vary and change frequently. The need to preserve the established recognition criteria, on the one hand, and the need to provide useful information, on the other, has led to a number of controversial issues in the measurement and recognition of goodwill. In the study we analyze the historical experience in the form of goodwill perceptions, identifying historical patterns suitable for improvement of modern theory and practice of measuring goodwill. Methodological basis of the study consists of the works of distinguished sci- entists in the fields of accounting, international and generally accepted standards of accounting and reporting. The authenticity of the author’s findings confirmed by a logical use of scientific methods such as historical-and-comparative, historical-and-typological and historical-and-system method. The author track back the transformation of methods of measuring goodwill in academic research and normative documents of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Separate section is devoted to modern concepts of goodwill measurement, which represents an alternative to the existing account- ing standards. а gradual, cumulative and cyclical process of development of methods for measuring goodwill was identified. We found that in periods of economic growth the paradigm of current value usually dominates, while in periods of recession the historical cost paradigm is rolled back.
This article is the second part of the historical review of the occurrence and development of conceptual approaches to measuring goodwill in economic science since the 70-ies of the 20 century to the present. The problem of goodwill measurement arose in economic science at the end of the 19th century and still discussed in the academic and practitioner communities around the world. Despite numerous studies and the adoption of accounting standards issued by various professional organizations internationally, existing opinions on this issue vary and change frequently. The need to preserve the established recognition criteria, on the one hand, and the need to provide useful information, on the other, has led to a number of controversial issues in the measurement and recognition of goodwill. In the study we analyze the historical experience in the form of goodwill perceptions, identifying historical patterns suitable for improvement of modern theory and practice of measuring goodwill. Methodological basis of the study consists of the works of distinguished scientists in the fields of accounting, international and generally accepted standards of accounting and reporting. The authenticity of the author’s findings confirmed by a logical use of scientific methods such as historical-and-comparative, historical-and-typological and historical-and-system method.
The author track back the transformation of methods of measuring goodwill in academic research and normative documents of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Separate section is devoted to modern concepts of goodwill measurement, which represents an alternative to the existing accounting standards. А gradual, cumulative and cyclical process of development of methods for measuring goodwill was identified. We found that in periods of economic growth the paradigm of current value usually dominates, while in periods of recession the historical cost paradigm is rolled back.
The development of information technologies, increase of the knowledge significance, the vital importance of innovation as the tool to obtain the competitive advantage issue new and complex challenges to modern companies in many aspects of their business. One of such issues is the adequate information disclosure about the intellectual capital of the company to satisfy the inside and outside stakeholders, such as: management of the company,employees, investors, government, credit institutions and many others. It is necessary to note that information disclosure is particularly relevant to companies in emerging markets due to their inefficiency, which often leads to inadequate assessment by stakeholders. This paper presents the non-financial evaluation of the intellectual capital disclosure by the cumulative method (intellectual capital disclosure index). This index is used as the fundamentally different analytical tool to investigate the information disclosure of intellectual capital by the means of empirical panel data analysis, in order to evaluate the systematical contribution of intellectual capital into value creation of the companies of the largest developing countries. The paper is organized as follows: in the first part it provides a brief academic overview of the definitions and classifications of intellectual capital, methods of evaluation. The intellectual capital impact on the value of companies is also briefly discussed in this part of the paper. The index regression model of the impact of intellectual capital disclosure on the value is discussed in the second part of the paper. Finally, main results and conclusions of the research and recommendations for further development of the topic are presented. The study describes the disclosure of information on intellectual capital of the companies in emerging markets (Brazil, Russia, China, South Africa), the main finding is that the disclosure of such information contributes to the growth of the value of the company, because it allows stakeholders to evaluate it adequately.