The paper presents a study aimed to develop a Russian-language instrument measuring attitudes towards Statistics in students specializing in social sciences. The SATS-36 scale (Schau, 2003) was used as a basis. All the stages of questionnaire adaptation are described in detail. The sample was comprised by 253 students from three departments of Higher School of Economics. Factorial structure of the questionnaire was demonstrated using confirmatory factor analysis. The factorial structure of the new Russian-language questionnaire was somewhat different from that of the original instrument, in line with the specific features of Russian-language educational environment. The data on reliability and validity of resulting scales are presented. The paper also includes a theoretical review tracing the history of the notion of attitudes towards statistics and of their measurement.
Ideas of distributed and situated cognition are now the subject of wide speculation in cognitive science and related areas. These approaches treat cognition not as symbolic processing occurring inside brain or mind, but rather as individual’s active interaction with environment, other individuals, and artifacts. A distributed cognition perspective faces two main problems. First, identification of a cognitive system becomes arbitrary, and, second, situations where cognition “in the wild” takes place remain unexplained. We propose a task-solving perspective to solve the first problem, and functional and evolutional sociological arguments to solve the second.
Socio-emotional and personal development of a child is one of the key factors that determine the success of the educational process at its early stages. How successful the first steps of a child in his/her first year at school will be is certainly associated with the level of his/her personal, social and emotional development (Merrel, Bailey, 2008). The understanding of the characteristics of the socio-emotional development and identification of its typical patterns may allow teachers to build educational process more efficiently, and students will be more effective and productive. Socioemotional development is a kind of basis for the education of the junior schoolchildren (Bradley et al., 2001). In the present paper, we make an attempt to describe the main patterns of social, emotional and personal development of a child at the beginning of the first year at school on the basis of the results of a large-scale study of the first-graders of the Russian schools. In the paper, the instruments are presented, which were developed on the material of a large empirical project IPIPS (The International Performance Indicators in Primary Schools). The research was performed on a large sample (N=1218) in the Republic of Tatarstan. In the result, the stable patterns of development were identified, characteristic for the Russian first-grader at the beginning of study at school. The acquired results may become the important instrument for individualization of education and self-assessment of a teacher and a school as a whole at the important stage of the beginning of education.
A detailed answer is given in the article to the critical arguments by A.B. Orlov and N.A. Orlova, presented in the article “Science of a man: A person-centered approach to general personology” (see the pages of the present issue of the journal) on a previously published article by V.A. Petrovsky and E.B. Starovoytenko “The science of personality: four projects of general personology” (Petrovsky, Starovoytenko, 2012). The authors of the four projects assume that critique towards them is due to the following reasons. The first one is the obvious perceptual mistakes, substitution of terms, biased interpretations of the texts of the criticized works. The critics willingly tell their ideological and political evaluations, possibly assuming that thus they strengthen the persuasiveness of their reasoning (for example, the idea of “personality” is associated by them with the “racist development of the fascist personology” and so on). In consequence of such erroneous perception these authors come to the erroneous conclusions, which affect the core categories and statements of personology (discrediting of its methodological status, non-differentiation of general personology and local variants of its development – multisubjective personology, personology of life, etc.). Herewith, however paradoxical it is, the critics attribute to themselves the priority in development of “local personologies”. The second reason, which prompts the “person-centered” critics of the idea of personology to enter into controversy with the authors of the four projects and leads to significant distortions of perception, interpretations and evaluations, is the own rather questionable ideas of the disputants; primarily, it applies to the balance of science and practice in the perspective of development of psychology (according to the critics, with the set of the approaching “psychozoic era” the psychology will die, giving place to the person-centered psychopractice). The stylistics of the argument of the critics has little to do with the principles of “empathic hearing”, “understanding and acceptance”, “non-judgemental perception”, which were discovered by the creator of the “person-centered approach” C. Rogers. Instead of the “active listening” the methods of “active eating” (“black rhetoric”) are used. The content and the style of their reasoning have nothing common with the “person-centered approach” – as applied to the ideas of those who think differently.
The article analyses the notion of metapathology introduced in the late works of A. Maslow. It characterizes personality disorders as a sequence of a decrease in humaneness, as a manifestation of social shortcomings. The article justifies that «Metapathological» variants which are not optimal for personality development can be regarded as dilemmas.
This article presents a study of the regulatory role of emotional intelligence in decision-making in real-life situations and of the functioning of intellectual and personal potential using Emotional Anticipation Method (EAM). Expert psychologists used quality analysis techniques to develop a typology of the content characteristics of choices on a sample of military instructors (N = 79). It is important to note that our selective sample included professionals involved in actual professional activity, who are well aware of the consequences of using or ignoring emotional information in their professional activity. Characteristics of emotional intelligence (EI) and tolerance to ambiguity in the system of predictors of personal choice were considered. The hypothesis of discrepancy between the data obtained using objective measurements and EI questionnaires was confirmed. The results show difference between dispositional and situational con- texts of inclusion of EI in the regulation of choices. For each task, we obtained proofs that subjects non-randomly selected one of the proposed alternatives and their choice was the closest to their personal solution. This allows us to consider alternatives designed as having high ecological validity. It was found that in the final answer, the use of illustrative tips led to an increase in the number of choices that minimise uncertainty in a given emotional context. Emotional intelligence serves as a prerequisite for effective use of illustrative tips. EAM procedure can be regarded as an indirect diagnostic tool for evaluation of certain aspects of emotional intelligence.