The paper looks at the role of working memory in the effect of “misses in continued search”. The effect consists in missing thesecond target stimulus after a successful detection of the first in a visual search task. One of the theories links the effect to the fact that the detected first stimulus exhausts the resource of the working memory and thus blocks the search. In our study we used a standard working memory task which consisted in memorizing one digit (low working memory load) or six digits (high working memory load) with a subsequent report. A visual search task consisted in looking for the letters T among letters L. There might have been one or two Ts or none at all. The subjects’ task in each trial was to identify the Ts while retaining the information about the digital task in the working memory. The experiment revealed meaningful significance of the number of stimuli, but the factors of the working memory load and interference of stimuli were insignificant. Thus the degree of the effect of “misses in continued search” (the difference between percentage of correct answers in the task with two target stimuli and in the task with one target stimulus) turns out to be the same in all trials irrespective of high or low loading of the working memory. Comparison of the findings of the study with other research data allows a conclusion that the effect of misses is either not linked to working memory or is linked to another memory sub-system. The study also revealed a link between the effect of misses and the number of search stimuli, i.e. the perceptive load of the system of information processing.
The paper presents an adaptation of the ERQ (Emotion Regulation Questionnaire) by Gross (Gross & John, 2003) in the Russian sample ( N = 820). The questionnaire was developed on the basis of the process model of emotion regulation; it measures two strategies of emotion regulation, namely cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. Cognitive reappraisal is a change of the perception of a situation that results in a change of an emotional response; expression suppression is inhibition of an ongoing emotional response. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis showed that the ERQ Russian version has a two-factor structure similar to the original version. Internal consistency of the scales is high (Cronbach's alphas around 0.8); they correlate lowly positively with eachother. Expression suppression scores are higher in Russian men in comparison with women (there are no gender differences in cognitive reappraisal). Convergent validity: emotion regulation strategies correlate positively 0.5 with constructs related to management of one's own emotions and expression control. Discriminant validity: emotion regulation strategies yield a typical correlation pattern with Big Five traits at the level of 0.2 (except for no correlation between expression suppression and Agreeableness and a positive correlation with Conscientiousness) and do not correlate with academic performance regarded here as a manifestation of cognitive abilities. Criterion validity: cognitive reappraisal correlates positively with psychological well-being indices (life satisfaction and hardiness), whereas expression suppression correlates negatively (around 0.2). Russian version of the ERQ is a valid and reliable measure of cognitive reappraisal and expression suppression. The results show that expression suppression is an emotion regulation strategy fairly typical for Russia.
The paper discuss subjectness as an individual characteristic which manifest itself in personalozation and personification as two opposite processes in personal actual genesis. An empirical study was conducted to test a hypothesis on representation of those processes in speech. The study focused on sense fields "Being a personality" (personalization) and "Being oneself" (personification). It was discovered that in men to whom personal qualities are important, the index is low and vise versa. The study also identified speech markers of personalization (the words posses, be able, insist, actions, life) and personification (the words behave, exist, try, accept, act). Speech patterns containing a negative of personification. On the basis of validization of the findings by experts speech markers of personalization and personification can be represented in the form of a categorical grid.
During the last two decades the phenomenon of life calling attracts considerable attention from foreign researchers. Research on calling has started in the USA and Europe and continues in China, India and South Korea. New conceptualizations keep emerging along with measurement instruments, and the main challenge faced by research community is to reach common understanding of this phenomenon. In the current paper we will describe different approaches to life calling: calling as divine command, calling as job fit and moral duty, calling as work orientation, calling as transcendent summons, calling as passion towards a domain, as well as corresponding measurement instruments. Research shows, that all those approaches address the same base construct that, supposedly, has life meaning at its core. Source of calling, prosocial character, the role of religion in calling discernment and several other aspects are still subject to discussion. Despite complications with formulating of the unified concept of calling, it is already clear, that it influences work and life in general substantially. On the one hand, calling positively affects work and life satisfaction, mitigates influence of stress and burnout, and also helps to choose life and career path. One the other hand, it may cause exploitation at work, sacrifices in the other areas of life, and also, when unfulfilled, may induce regret for missed opportunities for self-realization. The primary aim of the present paper is to attract Russian researchers’ attention to the phenomenon of life calling, to trigger further research and find its place among such concepts as life meaning, choice, personal potential, self-actualization and personalization.