The current state of management practice is characterized by the presence of a demand to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of logistics processes, on the one hand, and an insufficient level of application of one of the main tools for achieving this goal - optimization modeling, on the other. One of the main reasons of this phenomenon is the lack of a universal basis of the proposed optimization models that does not allow them to be applied widely enough in companies with different business process structures. The aim of the research was to develop a universal, based on the SCOR framework, integrated model for optimizing the logistics service of an enterprise. During the research process, the overview of the developed models for logistics service optimization, the analysis of the limitations of the logistics system optimization models, the adaptation of the map of SCOR process metrics have been carried out; the influence diagram of the optimization model components has been developed; the models of cost optimization and logistics service optimization have been combined into a single integrated optimization model; an algorithm for the optimal solution search has been elaborated; the implementation of the model and algorithm as a program for the solution search has been introduced. As a result, the integrated optimization model based on the components of the SCOR model has been developed, combining the cost and service level optimization models, using the outputs of one model as inputs for another when searching for an optimal solution. Building the optimization model on the basis of the SCOR model components provides universal character of its application, taking into account the set of costs, arising in a logistics system, including indirect ones, and the set of metrics of logistics service reflects the links between functional departments, the ability to maintain a level of total costs at the efficiency frontier, achieving the goal of the profit maximization at the same time, provides a link between the tactical and operational levels of decision-making, which together leads to an increase in the reasonableness and quality of management decisions, and creates prerequisites for the overall optimal functioning of an enterprise logistics system.
At the particular article we provide a methodological approach to selection of companies for horizontal cooperation in procurement logistics. In context of modern logistics (globalization, high customer expectations, high transportation costs), and changes regarding Russia’s plans to join WTO, this topic is highly relevant from a practical point of view. The purpose of this article is to provide single methodological approach to selection of companies for horizontal cooperation.
In the article the actual problems and the methodology of organizational structure design by companies, which target Russian market, in terms of logistics and SCM departments formation are considered. The classification and main characteristics of organizational structures as well as comparative analysis of hierarchic and adaptive types are given.
Key features connected with logistic and supply chain management (SCM) departments design in the companies’ organizational structures are reflected. It is shown that organizational structure development by the logistics should be initiated by the strategy and key logistic business processes, while the logistics (SCM) department design is connected with the decision-making process concerning specialization, departamentalization, department size and delegation of authority by company’s top management. The model of company’s logistics department organizational structure design is given. It is demonstrated that the organizational design evolution in logistics and SCM is closely related with logistics development.
The main research methodology aspects of logistics and SCM departments organizational design with a foundation of systematic approach (analysis), economic cybernetics methods, operation research, mathematical statistics, decision theory and SCM theory are given. The investigation problem statement for logistics and SCM organizational design evolution in Russian companies is given.
Mining companies are a special type of production enterprise, being a kind of "starting point" of material flows that pass through supply chains, gradually transforming into production and technical products and consumer goods for end customers. In this connection, the purchased resources refer exclusively to an auxiliary group of materials that are used to support mining processes and administrative and economic activities.
Therefore, the use of the integrated technology Lean Six Sigma (Lean Production + Six Sigma), while providing operational resources and services, should include solutions aimed at reducing activities that do not add value to the raw materials being sold, increase the speed of the processes, a simultaneous increase in the level of logistics services.
The article shows that it is possible to solve these tasks through the centralization of material flows, receiving wholesale discounts on consolidated orders, without increasing the period for providing the demand. In addition, based on the principles of queuing theory, assigning relative priorities to different procurement applications, you can shorten the time to meet the needs of domestic consumers.
As a result of the calculations given in the article, it is shown that with a decrease in the time spent in the queue for the most important applications, the quality of the material and technical supply service improves. Also, when processing orders grouped according to the nomenclature of consumed resources, you can reduce the complexity of processing by reducing the variety of supplies and the number of offers from potential suppliers that need to be analyzed simultaneously.
Methodology of solving the problem of warehousing logistics is viewed, including the complex of problems of constructing warehousing network and optimizing warehousing economy. It is shown, that solving the problem of warehousing logistics lies in gradual consideration and mplementation of such taska as working out logistic strategy, including operating of warehousing network; forming optimal network in frame of locating warehousing capacities; projecting (reorganizing) warehousing economy; working out master plan of warehousing economy; working out optimal system of warehousing and volumetric planning decisions.
The problems of managing logistic process at the warehouse are analyzed in frame of optimizing parameters of trade flows, going through warehouse.
This paper is devoted to the development of formal procedures for calculating inventory management parameters for a model with a fixed interval between orders. The urgency of transition from informal methods of regulation of insurance stocks to formal economically justified procedures for calculating their planned values is shown. The article presents an analysis of the concept of "logistics service" in the context of its use in determining the value of the safety stock. The main approaches to determining the target value of the safety stock depending on the level of logistics service are considered. There are known difficulties in determining the dependence of the level of logistics service and financial performance. In this regard, it is proposed to use the equation of total costs of replenishment and maintenance of reserves, including deficit costs, as a basis for determining the parameters of inventory management based on cost minimization. In this case , the service level is treated as a derived value that corresponds to the minimum total cost condition. A method for determining the parameters of inventory management for a model with a fixed period is developed. The algorithm of calculations is tested on an example.
Success of any logistics enterprise in the context of digital economy progress directly depends on regular and effective innovations to the area of improving analytical applications and information systems in such actively developing fields of knowledge as strategic management, distribution networks development, and supply chain management. In an effort to ensure a sustainable economic circumstance under conditions of strong competition, the most perspective companies are increasingly focusing on the development and introduction of modern methods and tools for intelligent data analysis. The article focuses on the consideration of issues related to the use of modern simulation approaches and such components of the soft computing concept as neural networks, fuzzy logic and evolutionary computations in solving the problems of multifunctional logistics and supply chain management.
When managing procurements and suppliers, one often has to deal with heterogeneous information from various sources, which is not always amenable to formalization, since it can be defined by qualitative characteristics. Under the sanction pressure on the Russian economy, changes in the market trends for the sale of many goods and services are revolutionary in nature, making it difficult to objectively use mathematical statistics and probability theory for business planning purposes. The increase in the share of sales of innovative products with a short life cycle also limit the use of science-based approaches for forecasting the need for supplies. Therefore, issues of improving and standardizing methods of processing and analyzing information that reflects the results of activities of companies in various business sectors are quite relevant. The article discusses the specifics of constructing non-linear dependencies of stock consumption on various environmental factors that can be used in calculating insurance stocks. In addition, the article substantiates the possibility of using mutually and autocorrelation functions when planning the need for supplies, as well as methods of multiple correlation and regression analysis. For the procedures for selecting counterparties in procurement, issues of using rank correlation methods are considered. The conclusions made in the article, methodologically, are based on a systematic approach to the analysis of the relationship between the results of companies and the influence of macro and microeconomic factors. When processing statistical information, econometric methods and models were used as ways to study quantitative and qualitative economic relationships. The results of the calculations carried out in the article show the effectiveness of the proposed stochastic methods that can be actively used in analyzing consumption trends and planning stocks of raw materials, materials, finished products, operational resources in production, trading and logistics companies.
Among logistic management issues nowadays the most urgent one is the problem of method choice for assessing supply chain efficiency performance indexes. Mostly, that could be explained by fragmented nature of conducted research works among Russian and foreign experts. Herewith the lapse of any united analytical and methodological basis for conducting calculations complicates the efficiency assessment task and deprives it of almost any economic sense, because, in our opinion, application of comparing methods or just orientation to an «ideal» performance in the industry do not fully correlate with criteria of accuracy and adequacy of numeric examples. The paper contains analysis of the leading research works devoted to the problem of developing efficiency assessment methods for supply chains; proposes ways of developing existing approaches considering analytical models and methods; provides sample calculations
By controlling the various stock categories in real business, companies often have to take into account the large number of factors. It is necessary in order to provide these factors received as a result of parameters calculation, really make it possible to reduce costs and increase profits effectively. One such model involves the immobilization of accounting losses from the funds invested in stocks. Mining companies are the initial parts of the supply chain, which are the sources of origin of the material resources main flow. Material costs represent a significant share in the costs of raw materials produced, and most of them accounted for the purchase of consumables used in the production process. Therefore, operating resources require diverting significant amounts of funds from the mining companies turnover. Calculations were made taking into account various factors, reflecting the macroeconomic trends in Russian economy, such as inflation. To assess the opportunity costs, the statistics on bank deposits with fixed interest rates and interest capitalization was used. The potential savings evaluation was carried out using the economic order quantity model taking into account losses from the immobilization of capital into stocks. As a result of the calculations presented in the article, it is shown that taking into account losses from the capital immobilization into stocks and developing practical recommendations for optimizing the level of stock balance, may give significant cost savings and opportunities to increase profits. Released financial resources can be directed to the equipment modernization, which will help increase the return on assets and improve the productivity of mining companies work.
Worsening of the macroeconomic conditions as well as tougher rivalry make companies’ management look for additional means of raising the business competitiveness. In such a situation, managers start to draw their attention to the logistics efficiency along with the quality of material flow management in supply chains. Horizontal collaboration constitutes one of the ways to increase logistics efficiency and effectiveness which is currently underused by the Russian companies. The article focuses on the essence of the notion “horizontal collaboration”, its typology, and benefits that such a cooperation can bring to the organizations of various business forms. The authors examine foreign business cases proving that horizontal collaboration helps to decrease operation costs, raise the quality of the customer service, provide more flexible reaction on the clients’ demand, reduce carbon footprint as a result of doubling delivery elimination and diminution of deadheading. Apart from advantages of horizontal collaboration, the article dwells on the main obstacles to its implementation. The authors pay specific attention to the issue of gain sharing. The paper scrutinizes major requirements for stable and fair gains allocation based on the application of the game theory methods. Requirements in question include efficiency, symmetry (anonymity), compliance with the «dummy» rule, strong monotonicity, individual rationality. Different methods of gain sharing are thoroughly reviewed and compared. Comparative analysis shows that gains allocation following Shapley value method meets all the requirements for stable and fair distribution. As a result, this method can be recommended as the basic one in the horizontal collaboration projects.
The article is devoted to the ways of the «collaboration» strategy accomplishment in course of interfunctional conflicts resolution. The author reviews methods of seeking new, mutually beneficial conflicts solutions lying beyond the initial stands of the companies’ functional departments. The approach suggested in the article allows to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the organizational functions interaction when moving goods flows in the wholesalers’ supply chains.
The article looks at the main tendencies of SCM ideology development worldwide. Basing on the analysis of the reports of the largest analytical and IT companies on the theme under consideration, the article reveals key factors and drivers determining the SCM concept development in the midterm. The best practice of the leading logistic and SCM companies is researched; Gartner Research, in particular, provides a list of Top 25 best international companies using SCM in 2017. The article analyzes Gartner Research recommendations on implementing the best SCM solutions and technologies in business organizations. SCM challenges and barriers in Russian companies are identified. It is determined that world SCM leaders particularly focus on implementation of digital technologies, such as RFID, Mobile app, Big Data, Cloud Services, IoT, BlockChain, 3DPrinting and others. It is shown that besides SCM digitalization, the leaders pay attention to supply chain segmentation, business client focus, improvement of stability, dynamics and transparency of supply chains.