There are two main approaches to study youth consumption. The ﬁrst one considers consumption as viewed by a group of people of a certain age who differ from other age groups. Cultural differences are not taken into account. In the second approach consumption is seen as one of structure-forming elements of youth communities and practices. In that case, researchers study subcultures and youth leisure activities. However, those young people who are not engaged in subcultures and whose consumption patterns do not deﬁne their group iden-tities are poorly studied. The article ana-lyzes the importance of consumption among young persons and examines the ideological vectors of youth solidarity. The database consists of 28 biographical interviews with young activists from St Petersburg. The emphasis is placed on value priorities and the signiﬁcance of labor for young activists. Thus, the meaning of consumption is considered through the prism of values and labor using the notion of “cultural repertoire of consumption”. Based on the interview results, ﬁve repertoires were singled out: antireconsumption, ethical, pro-Soviet, anti-consumption and politicized reper-toires. Special attention is given to young activists’ reinterpretation of exclusiveness within the dominant consumption discourse. The analysis provides the grounds for reviewing the content of the solidarity vector and the substitution of “consumption-asceticism” direction for the “critical-internalized consumption” The author ex-presses gratitude to Elena L. Omelchen-ko, director of NRU HSE Center for Youth Studies, and Yana N. Krupets, project manager, for the provided materials. Special thanks go to all the colleagues who took part in the tool design and data collection, discussion and analysis
The article analyzes key strategies of deproblematization of the economic sanctions (and Russian food embargo) which were used in four Russian printed editions from March 2014 to December 2014: Rossiyskaya Gazeta (pro-governmental, 945 articles), Novaya Gazeta (oppositional, 396 articles), Argumenty i Fakty (popular mass newspaper, 258 articles) and Kommersant (business magazine, 1574 articles). Thus, we consider the discussion in the four editions, which could be placed at the poles of the two axes: ideological stance and information category. According to the Title Popularity Ranking (TPR), these prints are leading. Newspapers use a wide range of deproblematization strategies. Some of them are aimed to refute the importance of the problem as a whole (unsympathetic counterrhetoric), others - on proof of insolvency of the proposed ways to solve it (sympathetic counterrhetoric). We conclude that in case of discussion on economic sanctions unsympathetic counterrhetoric prevail. Most popular strategies of deproblematization are “antipatterning”, “telling anecdote” and “counterrhetoric of insincerity” in terms of Ibarra and Kitsuse. The report describes most striking examples of these strategies and makes an inference about their weak and strong points. Also, we make some conclusions about intensity of the discussion on the issue. For example, we deduce that Russian food embargo was more noticeable in the public space than sanctions. The share of articles on sanctions mentioning Crimea steadily declined. At the same time, the share of articles on the subject, mentioning the rouble exchange rate significantly increased.
The paper explores an uneven transformation of social norms in the Russian society through the prism of female and male answers about their and their spouses’ time spent on housework. The paper is based on the results of the survey titled «Individual, Family, and Society» conducted by the Institute for Social Analysis and Prediction (RANEPA) in 2015. The study investigates respondents’ answers about their and their spouses’ housework burden as well as levels of their satisfaction with the housework distribution and emotional attitude towards it. The authors reveal that, unlike women, men tend to give higher estimates to the time spent by them and their spouses on household chores. The gap between average male and female estimates decreases with the length of relationship and increases with the birth of children. The data of the survey suggest that social norms and values have a considerable impact on respondents’ answers. In the last section of the paper, the authors provide an analysis of the interviews’ recordings (respondents’ intonations, comments, or laugh during their answers). The authors discover that, similar situations may result in different quantitative estimates depending on the respondents’ satisfaction level and attitudes. Extremely high or extremely low estimates of time spent on housework often result from dissatisfaction with the distribution of housework.
The article is based on the results of a social study aimed at exploring the labor norms, in particular normal workday length, overtime and the boundaries between them as viewed by the white-collar workers. The data of 22 semi-structured interviews with the office workers are used in the study. The analysis reveals a discrepancy between the way the workers define their overtime and the way they arrange their everyday practices. Formal excess of work hours is not perceived in fact as overtime by the workers; the author finds out that what is important for the workers is the balance between their professional and personal life as well as the degree of fatigue. The author concludes that workers’ age, sex, family status and how they prioritize work in the list of life priorities shape the way how they delimit work and overtime. Types of overtime are distinguished: formal, informal, involuntary and voluntary.
The article addresses to the mixed methods strategy applying to the modern Russian nationalist organizations studying. This strategy matches to solve simultaneously the several scientific problems: i) the low degree of the mentioned organizations exploration, ii) the difficulty in studying these organizations by means of qualitative methods (i.e. which results may be verified by means of mathematics) because they are informationally and culturally closed, iii) the mismatching between the defining latent causality purpose and qualitative methods (i.e. which results may NOT be verified by means of mathematics) applying opportunity. The research, which results comprised the basement for this article, fulfilled the “qual->QUANT->qual” variant of the mixed methods strategy. The report depicts a design and a result of the research’s each step. Thus, it depicts the identified components of the exploring organizations ideologies: standpoints regarding the USSR, organizations’ perception regarding those who threats Russia, type of nationalism (including racism), organizations’ preferences regarding the Russia’s territory, organizations’ preferences regarding religion, organizations’ preferring economic models. Then, it depicts these components hierarchy and mathematic arguing that the basic component is the standpoints regarding the USSR.
Problematization of women’s experience in a patriarchal and conservative society is topical despite change of epochs. More women stress their ability to belong to the privileged class of men and condemn those who are not ready to abandon femininity, as Simone de Beauvoir wrote. Those women who socialize supporting these increasingly popular practices are female misogynists. The authors’ review of theoretical approaches shows that the internalized misogyny is insufficiently studied. The empirical part of the study explores this phenomenon in the Russian society. The study emphasizes specifics of internalized misogyny among women brought up in the post-Soviet era, the Millennial generation. The authors use a mixed methods research strategy combining qualitative and quantitative approaches — focused interview with stimulus materials and online survey. A tool to measure the concept of internalized misogyny is developed and tested; this tool helps to establish a connection between the expression of misogyny and social and demographic characteristics and to explore its types (gender «contracts»).
The article provides an analysis of the results of a survey conducted by the authors. Using a “deep metaphor” technique the authors explore careerbuilding activities of the Millennials aged 21–24 with a working experience of at least one year and a half. The methodological basis of the paper is a combination of biographical interviews, a visual set of metaphors related to career planning prepared by respondents (film strips) and discussion (interpretation) of these visual images with the researchers. A special attention is paid to analyzing the key generational fears. On the basis of ten dominant metaphors and fears the authors single out six models of building a career path, or four models in a scaled up version. Those models are (1) career as a calculated project (“I see the goal and see no barriers”), (2) career viewed through invariable life principles (“the choices made by many others do not suit me”), (3) career as an established tradition under implementation (“this has always been common, thus this is what I need to do”), (4) career as an un limited adventure (“an adventure, in one word”). The article proposes a detailed typology and presents all the visual metaphors drawn from the study in the form of structural schemes.
This paper focuses on the structure of public leisure practices in Russia. The interest to this topic is based on the idea that lifestyle can reflect the social structure of society. The sphere of public leisure activities is assumed to be the field of symbolic inequality where the stratification system is manifested. Existing literature indicates three different approaches to describe the structure of leisure. At the same time, the majority of the studies are focused on one particular form of leisure such as cultural consumption, sports, or gastronomic preferences, while neglecting the structure of leisure activities on the whole. Furthermore, the results of the analysis of the impact of social determinants vary depending on the social context. On this premise, the aim of this study is to reveal the structure of public leisure practices in Russia, together with the effect of the social features on it. The research is based on the data delivered by Public opinion Foundation. Using latent class analysis and multinomial logistic regression, five repertoires of leisure activities were found as well as the effects of income, education, age, and the region of living were revealed.
One of the key themes in the theoretical debate about the causes of radicalization is its relationship to inequality. Researchers consider the connection of radicalization both with objective inequality, which refers to structural restrictions in the access of certain social groups to economic, political and cultural resources, and subjective inequality, that is, the unfair distribution of these resources in the perception of community members.
Based on 21 semi-structured in-depth interviews with young people from the North Caucasus, the article explores the meanings attributed to Islamist radicalization and the relationship of radicalization to various dimensions and understandings of inequality. The authors conclude that religious radicalization within the North Caucasus region is linked in narratives to perceived injustice and is seen by informants as a cumulative response to the oppression of religious youth as a result of counter-terrorism measures. The radicalization of North Caucasian youth with experience of migration outside the region is linked to horizontal inequalities and is interpreted as a reaction to a situation of double exclusion - on the part of a society where social elevators are blocked by ethnic and religious xenophobia, and on the part of a parent family that seeks to control its younger members and imposes its own notions of self-realization and career.
All the members of education al community recognize the importance of critical thinking. It is also of highest importance for the job market for which people are often prepared by higher education institutions. The challenge facing these institutions is to raise an adequate level of critical thinking among university graduates. Nevertheless little research aimed to find strategies facilitating critical reasoning is being conducted in Russia. The findings of the foreign studies suggest that in order to develop critical thinking students need to participate in project activities (both group and individual activities) and to make presentations. Taken into consideration different cultural differences between Russian and foreign students and specific educational traditions, it is difficult to immediately apply the results of the foreign studies in Russia. The article is focused on the relationship between student project work and presentations and the development of critical reasoning in the Russian universities. The study is based on the results of the SuperTest project which compares the educational achievements of engineering students from Russian, Chinese and American technical universities. Using regression analysis the author proves that the situation in the Russian universities differs from the situation abroad: the level of critical thinking is negatively related to student project activity and presentations.