This work analyzes the di?erences in the social competitiveness between young people and the productive adult population of certain regions. Social competitiveness is considered to be an integral phenomenon, expressing the ability of social actors to more efficiently achieve their goals in society when compared to others. Discussed are the main approaches towards studying social competitiveness. The study is based on the results of a survey carried out in February 2016 (n = 1000) using such a method as the formalized interview at the place of residence, conducted in 28 settlements of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Levels of social competitiveness are analyzed via a composite “competitiveness index” (IC), which includes two types of indicators. The first expresses an individual’s objective social position (level of education, material and social status, level of managerial authority). The second includes subjective characteristics: life satisfaction, a degree of confidence in the future, evaluating the degree of positive/negative changes in the life of one’s family compared to the previous year. The certain tendency is revealed: the social competitiveness of young people (in accordance with the IС) may be higher than that of adult respondents. Socio-cultural factors of youth’s social competitiveness are also analyzed: value orientations (according to Sh. Schwartz), life resources, and emotional states. The tendency is shown, that social competitiveness is generally higher among those respondents who gravitate more towards positive emotional states. The competitiveness of youth, in comparison to adults, has more rational foundations, is based on a narrow range of value orientations and life resources. The conclusion is formulated on the importance of further research on the social competitiveness of young people using a wider range of indicators and a representative empirical base.
This article outlines major trends in the development of social semiotics during the last four decades of its existence. The starting point was the interface between functional analysis of the semiotic system of language and the structural interpretation of language as a social system. Their convergence provided the basis for further developing an interdisciplinary domain of social semiotics. Michael Halliday’s book “Language as social semiotic: The social interpretation of language and meaning” (1978) gave an initial impetus to exploring the interface of semiotic and social. Ten years later his approach was reinterpreted by Bob Hodge and Gunther Kress in “Social Semiotics” (1988). They suggested that both the social and semiotic nature of language had a broader significance and extends to the entire domain of human activity and existence. Thus, social semiotic (in singular) of language was enhanced into all-embracing social semiotics (in plural). This article further examines linguistic as socio-semiotic, semiotic as social, semiotic as multimodal, socio-semiotic as functional, interpretative as socio-semiotic. The article outlines two frontiers of social semiotics, that of its subject matter and that of its methodological dimension. Finally, the article focuses on current challenges faced by social semiotics, particularly those relevant to sociology.
The article discusses the public opinion about Christian Orthodox monasteries and monasticism in contemporary Russia. The analysis is based on the results of the public opinion polls conducted in 2010–2015 by the Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VCIOM). Materials of the poll by Irina Aster (2009) and multimedia contest ―Russia 10‖ (2013) were also used for the analysis. The analysis shows that monasteries are considered by Russians to be one of the symbols of the country although kept in a ―passive cultural stock.‖ Educated and older respondents seem to be more familiar with famous historical monastics rather than less educated and young people. Public opinion paints the portrait of a hard-working ―prayful‖ monk, whose life choice can be explained using divergent paradigms of ―moving away‖ from the world and ―coming to‖ a monastery, the latter connected with religious and moral issues. Respondents give a wide and varied range of positive motives in joining a monastery than negative ones. However, the attitude of Russians to the potential intention of their relative to become a monk is ambiguous. Polls show a roughly equal share of those whose reaction to such a decision would be ―rather positive‖ or ―rather negative.‖ It is concluded that the image of the monk as the ―inok,‖ the religious ―other‖ is quite acceptable in the modern social and cultural sphere. Monasticism is the cornerstone of Christianity, so the transformation of this institution, as well as the dynamics of public opinion about it can demonstrate the changes in the place and role of religion in society, which is especially relevant given the decline of trust in traditional institutions in contemporary social-cultural space.
The article suggests a return to the “crowd” as an object of sociological analysis. The crowds attracted early sociologists because crowds were visual embodiments of social forces that surpass individuals and also served as a symbol of profound social transformations that were taking place in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The analysis of crowds allowed first sociologists (G. Simmel, R. Park, M. Weber, E. Durkheim) to oppose the psychological interpretation of mass social phenomena with a purely sociological approach. However, in the second half of the 20th century the crowd became of little interest for sociology as it did not meet the interests of researchers of “big” social structures, nor the interests of the proponents of interactionist approaches. This article shows that crowd can again be made sociologically interesting if we consider it from the point of view of everyday practices of the participants. In these everyday practices a specific form of phronesis, i.e. practical wisdom, technical skill coupled with moral judgment about which action is good and which is not, is accomplished. It is shown here that the study of the practical wisdom of walking in a crowd requires special concepts and methods that can be found in phenomenology and ethnomethodology. In the article it is proposed to use three such concepts for the analysis of crowds: phenomenal field, oriented object, and figuration of details. With the help of these concepts the methods of crowd’s situated social order production are analyzed in relation to the management of speed and trajectories of movement, following one another, walkers’ stopping and braking, and joining the crowd. This analysis shows that the joint production of the social order of the crowd by its participants is a situated practice, i.e. it consists in making the local scenes of everyday life familiar and accountable and in assessing the local adequacy of the actions performed.
The article reflects the scientific concept with its empirical realization from the point of view of the possibilities for further analysis, the complex compounds of the varying data on social mobility over a long historical period, put into practice 4 generations. In this regard, the paper presents different views of sociobiografical approach to the subject of mobility: intragenerational and intergenerational approach, subjective concept of social mobility, the concept of life-wide changes, as well as the methodology for combining different databases: the quantitative and qualitative, primary and secondary data
The article examines the problems of religious feelings of the Soviet population in 1960- 1970es. The article shows the typical classification and analysis of questionnaires, some methods of sociology of religion, tasks put forward by the studying and “eradication” of religious consciousness, some aspects of “the party order” for atheism and others. The article presents the archival materials that are kept in the Russian Archive of Socio-Political History.
In the age of globalization, vanishing borders between the countries and the growth of mobility comparative analysis of the societies social structure and the nature of inequality becomes especially timely. This article presents a detailed analysis of the structure and depth of the countries inequality, as well as those of separate groups of countries in a more complex system of parameters. On the basis of the available data the authors attempt to test the hypothesis of the connection of inequality not only with the income level, but also with the imputed income per capita. The authors go beyond the standard instruments of measuring the inequality by income and offer their own modification of the decile exponent of inequality by imputed per capita GDP.
Dmitry Kurakin’s article on the sociology of culture in the Soviet Union and Russia has been recently published in the “Cultural Sociology” journal. This led to discussions about Soviet and post-Soviet academia among sociologists and intellectuals from other disciplines. In this issue, we publish a correspondence between Leonid Ionin, a famous Russian sociologist, and the author. Their debate is focused on one of the article’s themes: the role of the past in constructing academic identities and in building research strategies in the context ofexisting scenarios of globalization and indigenization. Is there any room nowadays for national schools in sociology? What are the territorial and institutional frames which are shaping academic practices and professional identities for sociologists in Russia? What are the meanings and the consequences of the different ways of self-identification within these frames? Is Russian sociology “secondary” in the international context, and are there alternatives for such a vision? In their discussion, the authors seek to find answers for these and other questions, which play a key role in shaping the sociological academic landscape in Russia.