Th is article is devoted to the methods of how to write a research text in the area of public administration. The research styles as integral methodic-technological characteristics of the parts of the research text are introduced. Diff erent research styles can be attributed to seven parts of the research text: abstract; introduction (including sources review); hypothesis the main part of the text (including specifi cation of the initial hypothesis according to the selected method of its justifi cation, data and other instruments of the hypothesis justifi cation usage); conclusion (including the hypothesis proliferation and proposals for practical applicability of the achieved results); a list of sources; and footnotes and remarks.
The problem of improving indicative quality assesment in governance is explored. The reasons in certain difficulties in elaboration and implementation of the indicative assesment, and for the luck of integrated theoretical foundations of such evaluations, are given. The outlines of critics for quality of assesment of governance based on data analysis are discussed; the gups and mistakes of this critics are highligted.
The article deals with problems related to the lack of a clear definition in the Russian legislation such basic government functions, such as «state control», «state supervision» and «permissive functions». Corresponding concepts are not delimited properly and largely duplicated.
Based on the analysis of the legal framework, governing the control, supervision and licensing, as well as scientific literature, devoted to this problem, the authors have identified the main features and the content of the above concepts.
State and municipal control should be considered as independent system functions of federal and regional executive bodies and local governments, which are indispensable to the processes of public administration and local self-government.
The article formulates proposals for the creation of a complex model of state control, which includes such separate sub-functions of public authorities as: a) implementation of state supervision; b) issuance of a permits; c) holding state expertise, and d) formation of state information resources. Аlso the article listed the proposed principles and methods of state and municipal control.
In accordance with the general rule established by the legislation on state control and antitrust legislation, the implementation of control powers by state and municipal institutions (state-financed organizations) is not allowed. However, despite the prohibitions, other federal laws and laws of subjects of the Russian Federation provide for the possibility of certain types of control (supervision) by institutions (state-financed organizations). In some cases, institutions are endowed with supervisory powers by bodies of executive power regulations. The study identified 6 types of audits exercised by federal institutions (state-financed organizations), 5 types of control (supervision), exercised by institutions of the RF subjects and 4 types of municipal control exercised by the municipal institutions (municipality-financed organizations). The article deals with the disadvantages of control by state and municipal agencies, as well as different options for solving this problem.
The article in the context of public administration reform analyses Open Government as a new public administration paradigm. The authors provide definition of Open Government and summarize international practices of open government implementation and evaluation. Based on current legal and administrative practices the recommendations on open government tools application are formulated for Russian Federation. The final goal of open government tools application is to strengthen the level of trust and organize effective feedback loop between Russian government and citizens.
The topic of the article is a resumptive conceptualization of institutional and discursive innovations connected with updating and practical ensuring of a new quality of public openness of the state. The author’s concern is the formation of the complete, internally differentiated subsystem of concepts of public openness which is integrated and develops a conceptual system of social studies. For this purpose, strangely enough, it is necessary to be exempted from the power of the commonly accepted modern political discourse. The explanation of a dialectic unity of the openness and closedness, as necessary parts of human existence, is an essential methodological basis. It allows to define more accurately the concept of «The Open State». Public openness of the state is simultaneously a factor of the social development and a social risk. The institutionalization of the open state is the answer to growing risks of the informative asymmetry in the conditions of postmodern existence of mankind in a global, IT coherent megalopolis. The open state is an institutionally determined measure of public openness. Four levels of the public openness are picked out: managerial openness, openness of the staff, civil openness and informational openness of the state. The conclusion, which determines the system of coordinates for the rationalizing and engineering of the social world, is that the public openness, which always is a source of chaos, acted as a factor of social development; it needs to be turned from the elements of human sociality into an institutional quality of the state. Citation: (2014) «Otkrytoe gosudarstvo» v ponyatiynoy sisteme obshchestvoznaniya ["Open government" in the conceptual system of social science] Public Administration Issues, 1, pp. 171-187 (in Russian)
The article is devoted to reporting as a tool of state regulation and enforcement. The article examines the reporting of Russian business organizations, supplied to the state bodies. The article includes the following topics: notion of reporting, types and features of reporting, the problems of reporting, the procedure for establishing of new types of reporting for business organizations.
The article examines the reporting, regardless of the scope of regulation. Usually reporting of enterprises is considered in other articles only in relation to the financial sector (tax reporting) or to the statistical reporting. This article studies the reporting at the universal level. The author distinguishes the following types of reporting: the state statistical reporting, financial reporting (accounting and tax reporting), sectoral reporting. In the article there is a description of each type of reporting and its legal regulation. The signs and features of the each type of reporting systems are described in the article.
The article presents the classification of business reporting on various grounds.
It is proved that reporting is a tool of state regulation and enforcement on a par with such tools as: various state permissions (licensing, accreditation, certification, etc.), control functions of state bodies (testing and inspection business). Reporting creates costs to business associated with completing the reporting forms. Therefore, this article is proposed to introduce regulatory mechanisms that exclude the establishment of redundant reporting forms.
Authors' conclusions verified in eight areas of public administration. The author revealed an exhaustive list of reporting forms in all these areas. Such forms are reviewed for content and purposes of their collection.
The article formulates proposals to improve the procedure for establishing of new types of reporting for business organizations.
In this study the authors researched the task to calculate the direct costs of economic entities in the collection and provision of primary statistical data. The authors developed and tested the Methodology for estimating the costs associated with gathering data, completing, calculating and verifying values of indicators of reporting forms. The authors calculated the direct costs of budgetary and commercial organizations in the social sphere to collect and provide forms of reporting and government costs – to collect and aggregate. The versatility of the Methodology allows to use it also for costs of the respondents to the collection of other types of reporting.
We share approaches on the allocation of private and social costs and assessed costs of opportunism of economic agents in the collection and provision of official statistical information, using the author's method of collection and analysis of the respondent’s opinions on the Internet.
The authors propose a new approach to estimate information costs in value terms.
e issue of assessing the quality of judicial decisions is particularly relevant for Russia as for a country at a transitional stage of institutional development. e paper analyzes the factors of quality of judicial decisions through antitrust cases in relation to international practice and Russian speci cs. ere is an analysis of the main features that determine the quality of the decisions made by the judges on the basis of a unique database of commercial courts cases. e article notes the high signi cance of the level of specialization and economic competence of judges when considering cases of a certain type. e decision quality factor is based on the minimization of law enforcement errors; and it is determined by such indicators as a fact of appeal, equality of decisions of rst and higher instances, as well as a cumulative number of instances considering a case as a pa- rameter of the quality of the case consideration by the judicial system in general. ere are several groups of parameters a ecting the quality. is research is especially focused on individual characteristics of judges, complexity of the approach required to the analy- sis of a potential violation and sanctions imposed on a party. It is shown that specialized experience of a judge in consideration of cases of a certain type provides rather intensive impact on the decision which will not be canceled by higher instances.
Performance management of local governance in Russia becomes nowadays more important. It happens due to the fact that a quality of public and local services in a great extent determines a quality of day-to-day life. Nevertheless the performance management for local authorities couldn’t be formed downwards. Primarily these methods should provide citizens’ satisfaction of an urban environment quality. Accordingly composite performance management methods for local authorities should be developed. They ought to combine the statistics and citizens’ surveys results.
In this article we present an analysis of Russian legislation and a regional practice of local authorities performance management. Also was formed a chart of analysis of different departments of city administrations to develop some elements of assessment and monitoring of local authorities activities and enhance citizens’ satisfaction. In addition, were discussed some questions of the statistics and surveys results correlation and possible errors of assessment.
Analysis was based on seven main aspects of performance management systems: a form of assessment criteria confirmation, authority for assessment criteria establishment, authority for performance assessment and payment decision-making, methods of assessment, a form of performance assessment results, consequences of positive assessment and consequences of negative assessment. Despite of apparent similarities of performance management systems in different countries, most of them have particular features that lead success or inefficiency of performance management of senior civil service. As a result, several suggestions for performance assessment and motivation of senior civil servants in Russia were made. They include three main stages of application of performance management instruments. The first stage supposes setting up performance objectives for senior civil servants. The second stage assumes an experiment of limited use of performance bonuses for senior civil servants in some ministries. Results of this experiment should be used to form normative and methodological foundation for further application of these instruments in other ministries and agencies (the third stage).
The article accumulates the Russian and foreign experience in assessing e- Government eff ectiveness. Th e methodologies were divided into two main groups: the assessment of e-Government readiness (including the assessment of governmental portals) and the evaluation of e-Government eff ects. Th e methods and criteria which are the most interesting from the point of view of their realization in the Russian practice were determined within the methodologies and techniques mentioned in the article. Th is article suggests some methods, indicators and criteria of assessing e-Government eff ectiveness which are appropriate for the Russian Federation reality.
Effect assessment recently becomes crucial for antitrust enforcement in developed countries. Russian antitrust legislation also allows assessment of pro-efficiency effects and their comparison with anti-competitive effects for several types of the actions that are potentially illegal under the law ‘On protection of competition’. Better implementation of the effects assessment requires special analysis of the recent developments in the enforcement, and that is the objective of this article. Articles explains common features and differences between the pairs of decision rules such as effect-based vs. object-based enforcement and rule of reason (ROR) vs per se illegality. We show that effect-based approach in Russian enforcement should improve social welfare. At the same time legislation and motivation of Russian competition authority allow to take into account positive impact of the practice in the fi eld of the effi ciency but does not strictly require this approach. The analysis use dataset of judicial reviews of the infringement decisions of Russian competition authority (FAS) on agreements and concerted practice during the period 2008–2012 (400 decisions overall). We found that efficiency considerations (taking into account the Article 13 conditions of the law ‘On protection of competition’) rarely determine the outcome of judicial review of infringement decision (only 5 cases from 400). Also, if competition authorities and judges take efficiency considerations into account they do it in arbitrary manner without full quantitative assessment.
While public funding of nongovernmental organizations is a highly sought-after
form of NGO support, its amount still does not meet the demand. International experi-
ence provides examples of solutions to this problem. Instead of transferring the grant-
making function to designated operators, the state encourages grantmaking foundations
to leverage their assets, both financial and institutional, within the framework of phil-
anthropic-government partnerships. This paper aims to explore and synthesize interna-
tional best practices of joining resources of the state and charitable foundations, which
results in a tangible increase in NGO financial support and its effectiveness. The paper
focuses on partnership models, such as engaging foundations in grant-making and le-
veraging resources with government; government match-funding programs to incentiv-
ize private donations to charitable foundations; developing various types of institutional
partnerships between the state and foundations. Civil society monitoring conducted in
2015 and 2016 by the HSE Center for Studies of Civil Society and the Nonprofit Sector
helped expose challenges and barriers that make philanthropic-government partnerships
difficult to initiate and manage. Analysis of the international experience of coping with
these challenges has helped to propose measures to overcome such barriers in the Russian
context. Examples include the use of innovative tools, such as leveraging resources of the
state and foundations for grantmaking purposes within the framework of philanthropic-
government partnerships; introducing a ratio of government match funding to attract
private donations in the priority areas of education, research and culture; developing vari-
ous institutional arrangements to ensure effective collaboration between foundations and
government agencies (joint councils, task forces, discussion platforms, etc.)