This paper surveys the literature on decision-making in international sports organizations. The International Olympic Committee, the Fédération Internationale de Football Association and many other federations delegate decision-making to internal committees. A complicated structure of those committees that reflects the international status of federations, a unique type of decisions that is inherent to sports industry, and specific decision-making mechanisms attract the researchers’ attention. The survey is comprised of four paragraphs. The first paragraph briefly reviews papers aimed at studying preferences of the international sports federations committee members. The second paragraph is devoted to papers that analyze determinants of success of bids for hosting sporting mega-events. In the third paragraph we discuss different ways to fight corruption in decision-making bodies of international sports federations. Finally, we touch on the problem of accountability in international sports federations. The focus of the paper is on the economics literature, and it is not aimed to discuss a wide literature on such topics as management of sport organizations or psychology of decision-making.
The article deals with the problems of interaction between science and technology, innovation and industrial policy in Russia. In spite of the substantial intensification of the state policy in establishing of the new elements of the national innovation system, the coordination between different policies continues to remain weak that leads to inefficient use of resources under tight budget constraints. The author offers a set of actions aimed at improving the coordination.
Theoretical background for reasons that cause the owner of essential facilities to restrict competition in downstream markets provided. Examining the particular Russian antitrust cases the author discusses whether the essential facilities doctrine may be helpful to solve the problem. While the doctrine seems to be quite efficient when considering infrastructure industriesits use in other casesis disputable due to the high risk of type I errors (punishment of the innocents).
The paper discusses the formation and development of a modern Russian university economic journal, using the «HSE Economic Journal» as an example. A brief outline of the development of the journal is given, the appearance of which was determined by the transformation processes simultaneously taking place in the economy, the community of specialists and the university. The development of the Journal at the present stage is discussed in more detail. The problems of choosing a thematic niche of the Journal, determining its target audience, language policy are considered. The expediency of the Journal’s orientation to the publication of articles devoted to studies of the Russian economy and other transition and post-transition economies is substantiated. Concentration on this topic allows us to realize the competitive advantages of Russian researchers, and the Journal is able to provide a qualified examination of manuscripts. The possibilities of improving the quality of published articles, issues of interaction with the academic community, and problems of professional ethics are discussed. Considerations are given for organizing an open full-text electronic version of the Journal. The issues of increasing its visibility in the academic and expert communities are considered.
The paper provides a framework for analysis of optimal growth enhancing policy in the economy with market and government failures. It develops an endogenous growth model with strategic complementarities between R&D investments of firms and investments in training of households. The model generates two possible long-run equilibriums: no-growth poverty trap equilibrium and stable sustainable growth equilibrium. In the extended version of the model with government failures we assume that some part of government revenue is expropriated by rent seeking agents. With these conditions we analyze the possibility of transition from stagnation to growth induced by government investment subsidies and other factors.
The article typologies the Russian industrial policy of the 2000s, discusses major initiatives in this area, as well as changes in the state’s approach to the industrial policy. The tendency of the state to implement vertical policy is noted; while horizontal mechanisms are often “verticalized” under the influence of traditional interest groups. The state actively initiates new support measures, especially in crises and at the same time seldom terminates some existing ineffective instruments. In the period under review, the state more often appealed to the policy of catching-up development. In modern conditions, the government is likely to make significant efforts to implement the policy of breakthrough development. For the success of such a policy, it will be necessary to move in time from supporting local achievements of individual companies to creating conditions for the fast spread of new technologies and promising business models. In turn, this requires a transition of state governance from a culture of project management to a culture of quality execution of routines.
Recent work on economic development has pointed to productivity growth as an important factor in enabling countries to transition to the ranks of high-income economies. Vocational education is widely seen as one means of achieving this, although it requires a close match between the high-quality skills that firms demand and those skills actually taught. Recent efforts by the federal and regional governments in Russia have encouraged the spread of Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) between the firms and vocational education institutions as a means to ensure such a match. There is a great deal of variation across regions in the forms of PPP and their adoption, however. This paper seeks to describe the forms of contemporary vocational education in Russia using a novel database of PPP in Russia’s regions. Summarizing the recent work, it also attempts to explain why regions vary in their adoption and spread.
The article analyzes the existing differentiation in the consumption of benefits in higher education. It is substantiated that there is a deep differentiation of access to higher education in the areas of training depending on the income of families. The high level of science and computer science training and the ability of families to pay for tutors give applicants a better chance of studying at the expense of budget funds compared to applicants from low-income families. Education in the creative professions and design sector directly depends on the income level of families and develops extremely unevenly, both in the regions of Russia and in the areas of training. The current conditions of the coronavirus pandemic and the impending economic crisis have exacerbated the problem of access to higher education for low-income families to the limit. The integration of financial instruments that provide direct support to both educational institutions and students and their families at the expense of budgets could be a promising model for maintaining the accessibility of higher education for applicants from low-income families. Personalized funding allows students to participate in the possession of some of the “guardian benefits” through educational budget certificates.
We consider a situation in which the municipal government has to open n cultural centres in a city. The task is to subdivide efficiently the city into n districts D i and open a center at the geometric median m(D i ) of each district. We assume that the density ρ of the population in the city is constant ρ = 1. If each inhabitant of district D i living at point x follows the prescriptions and visits the centre m(D i ), his profit is λ i /area(D i )−d(x,m(D i )) where area(D i ) is the area of D i that coincides with its population and λ i is a positive weight representing the utility of the center. We show that the government can subdivide the city into a prescribed number of districts so that the optimal strategy of each inhabitant is to visit the center of his own district.
We propose a two-sector unified growth model, in which the speed of industrialization depends on the outcome of political conflict between the heterogeneous interest groups differing with respect to capital and land ownership. The distribution of capital and land determines agents’ political preferences and their incentives to invest in lobbying for development or blocking modern sector development. The probability that pro-growth policies are realized depends on the aggregate lobbying of two competing groups. We demonstrate that higher concentration of land ownership hampers the development of the modern sector, while higher concentration of capital ownership within the landless agents increases political support of pro-growth reforms and increases the pace of industrialization. Our model also explains the non-monotonous dynamics of political conflict intensity, which corresponds well with structural changes and GDP per capita growth observed in historical data.
We define a general equilibrium model with heterogeneous individuals who are endowed by identical preferences, given by utility function with constant elasticity of substitution (CES), and by heterogeneous entrepreneurial skills. We find that scale effects linked to migration are tractable in the framework of the constructed model because the migration changes the market size together with a market structure. A population growth due to immigration of low-qualified individuals ambiguously affects the share of the entrepreneurs and the inequality in the economy. If the distribution of the inverse entrepreneurial skills has an increasing (decreasing, constant) elasticity then share of the entrepreneurs decreases (increases, does not change) and the Gini coefficient increases (respectively, decreases and does not change)
This paper analyzes those potential opportunities that the Russian government could use over the recent years for the regulation of the banks’ access on credit market, namely, the privatization or nationalization of banks, facilitating increases in their size, and the variation of deposit insurance coverage. For each option of government regulation we conduct an empirical estimation of the influence that this exact option could have on the stability of banking system, taking into account the imperfection of competition on credit market. Special attention was paid on the estimation of thresholds that could separate positive and negative influence of each regulating option on system stability. Estimates were carried out on the basis of panel dataset covering balance sheets and profit and loss accounts of all Russian banks that disclosed these data through the Bank of Russia’s web-site during 2004 Q1 – 2012 Q4, i.e. before the change of the Head of the Bank of Russia. Our estimations have shown that in order to support stability of banking system during the period analyzed (in-sample) and in 2013–2016 (out-of-sample, in case no internal or external shocks heat the economy) the Russian government, the Bank of Russia and the Deposit Insurance Agency could — taking the levels of banks’ market power and credit risk distribution as exogenous — first of all increase the government investments in capital of state-owned banks. Second, they could raise the minimal capital requirements on already operating banks (on RUB 50-100 mln annually during 2013-2016). Third, they could allow decreasing the minimal deposit insurance coverage.
In the following study a microeconomic assessment of the implementation results of tax and financial policies aimed at stimulating firms’ innovation tivity is carried out. The approach used is based on the provisions of the additionality concept. The authors systematized and summarized the results of more than thirty empirical studies examining the additionality effects of tax and financial incentives for innovation. Obtained results suggest that financial support more often leads to significant positive results, mainly to the growth of company’s investment in new equipment, the increase in the production volume of innovative products and the acceleration of projects' implementation. However, the use of tax instruments is much less likely to crowd out private investment. Generally, public support rather poorly stimulates the development of the science-business cooperation.
Article is devoted to a problem of market transformation of Belarusian economy and development of its national economic model. The author has studied political and economic reasons of current economic policy and tried to answer the question, why Belarusian authorities wished to save existing Post-soviet economic model and how did it influence the economic situation. The study also takes into account latest regional integration processes and Belarus’ participation in Eurasian integration project.