The paper analyzes continuum motivational models of health behavior (health belief model, moti- vation protection theory, theory of planned behavior, social cognitive theory, subjective expected util- ity theory, information-motivation-behavioral skills model). The general principles of these models are revealed, including the focus on the behavior prediction; consideration of the intention as the key mediator of the relationships between other psychological factors and behavior; emphasis on the readiness for action rather than on the actual behavior . Theoretical limitations of this approach are the underestimation of the irrationality and dynamism of human behavior, the complexity of the moti- vational sphere (competing intentions and behaviors), the interactions between the constructs as well as possible substitution of explanation by prediction and so-called “bottleneck” problem. Among the empirical limitations we highlighted the most important are the problem of intention-behavior “gap” and the empirical support for the actualization of associations between motivational factors and behavior without change in conscious intentions. Attempts to overcome these limitations were focused on the improvement of the behavior prediction (development of priming models, identifying moderators affecting the transition from intention to action) or changed the focus from behavior pre- diction to the description of behavior dynamics (stage models) and/or behavior explanation (self-reg- ulation models). Further research could concentrate on the differentiation between motivational fac- tors explaining behavior and motivational factors serving as indicators of behavioral change as well as on the identification of complex interactions between motivational factors in the process of behavior.
In contrast with the majority of psychologists who base their theories on the division between the physical and the psychical, Frankl uses the division between the physical, psychical and the noetic. This is crucial for both psychological theory and practice (therapy and counselling). The article demonstrates in what way the key logotherapy techniques, paradoxical intention and de reflection, are determined by Frankl's theoretical constructions. The authors argue that Frankl's contribution consists in developing a new philosophy of psychotherapy, and not only in elaborating new techniques. This philosophy accentuates the noetic dimension of a human being, the dimension of his or her essence and existence. A passage from the traditional therapy - linked exclusively to the psychophysical level of humanity - to the new one is a step towards a therapy which helps people experience themselves as noetic beings.
In motion-induced blindness (MIB) a salient target disappears from observer’s awareness when imposed on a moving mask. Competition between object representations of a target and a mask is one of possible explanations of the illusory disappearances (Bonneh, et al., 2001). But how many feature differences between the target and mask components would be sufficient to trigger the competition? We systematically changed type (color, shape or motion) and number of features distinguishing a target from a mask. It was shown that just one salient feature is enough to trigger competition between object representations. Difference in color between the mask and target influences on number of disappearances, while difference in such visual feature as motion affects duration of target disappearances.
The article describes the Russian version of Social Dominance Orientation Scale. The structure, reliability and validity of three variants of the scale were studied: scale for measurement of general social dominance (Study 1), of dominance in interethnic (Study 2) and international (Study 3) relationships. Two thousand thirty five respondents took part in the studies (N1 = 512, N2 = 204, N3 = 1319). They filled in full versions of the scales, which comprised 16 items. Respondents were to agree or disagree with each statement on a 7-score scale (from 1 — "completely disagree" to 7 — "completely agree"). Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the model, where items formed 2 closely interrelated sub-factors, better fitted the data, than models, where all items were summed in one scale. Moreover, it was found that models, which comprised 10 items, better fitted the data, than models with 16 items (Study 1: x 2 = 121.737*, CFI = 0.967, RMSEA = 0.050; Study 2: x 2 = 42.411, CFI=0.988, RMSEA =0.035; Study 3: x 2 = 134.225, CFI = 0.967, RMSEA = 0.047). Further analysis demonstrated that 10-items models have good indices of configural validity In whole, the acquired results show that the short versions of the Social Dominance Orientation Scales correspond to the theoretical model, are reliable, valid and can be used in empirical research.
The paper discusses the problem of differentiating two types of optimism, which reflect different sides of constructive thinking, dispositional optimism (DO, generalized positive or negative expectations about the future) and optimistic attributional style (OAS, explanatory style applied to positive and negative life situations). Despite a multitude of studies focused on each of these constructs, past work didn't focus on the joint contribution of DO and OAS to activity performance and psychological well-being. In a study with university students (N=141) we found common and specific features of these two constructs as predictors of well-being and academic achievement. Attributional style was measured using the brief Success and Failure Explanatory Style Questionnaire (Gordeeva, Osin, Shevyakhova, 2009) and dispositional optimism was assessed by means of Dispositional Optimism Test (Gordeeva, Sychev, Osin, 2010). These two constructs were related and similarly predicted psychological well-being. We tested a path model, where the effect of OAS for success and failures on academic achievement and wellbeing was mediated by effective self-regulation, whereas dispositional optimism was directly related to well-being. The model (tested by Mplus 7.4) showed a good fit to the data (2 = 9.315; df = 7; p = 0.23; CFI = 0.975; NNFI = 0.957; RMSEA = 0.048). Only the OAS was associated to academic achievement and its associations with the performance and well-being outcomes were mediated by self-regulation and self-organization (skills of goal-setting, planning, and persistence).