The findings of an empirical study conducted with the help of an original procedure of feedback are discussed. Two psychologically opposite instructions determining attitude to inner experience were used to model direction of assessing and assessment. It was discovered that in the process of assessing inner experience feedback has a number of therapeutic effects. The finding could be used in studying therapeutic developments.
E.R. Kaliteyevskaya, D.A. Leontiev The paper suggests an approach to analyzing personality growth in terms of development of self-determination on the basis of integrating activity and self-regulation, which have different genetic origins and preconditions. A study conducted by the author has discovered in adolescence, the age critical for development of self-determination, four theoretically predictable correlations of activity and self-regulation, diversely linked to self-attitude and parent attitude, which form the basis for different personality types.
The authors are in the process of developing and testing a theoretical model of productive analogy which would more accurately reflect processes of creating new scientific and technical ideas than the currently popular model of thinking on the analogy. It is assumed that the structure of productive analogy includes 1) coding of the actual task, its key elements and relations between them; 2) scanning of background information or long-term memory for situations or tasks or their elements similar to elements of the current task; 3) comparison of the discovered analogues to the current task with the aim of finding the most appropriate; 4) decision-taking and assessment. The authors argue that thinking on the analogy which is measured by classical four-component tasks (a:b::c:d), although it includes comparison of analogies, cannot represent the actual process of decision-seeking because of the existence of response variations that block scanning of background information and affect coding of initial relations. The authors argue that it is necessary to include coding of the structure of the task and scanning of background information as processes involved in generating a productive analogy. A study was conducted with participation of students (n = 98) in order to test three regression models involving: 1) traditionally measured comparison of analogues; 2) scanning of background information; 3) coding of the structure of the task. It was discovered that inclusion of scanning and coding in the model of productive analogy brings about meaningful increase of the ratio of explained dispersion in effectiveness of generation of productive analogies. Growth of the explanatory power of the new model is not caused solely by adding new cognitive dimensions. It was also discovered that, although a greater number of semantically distant productive analogies were generated, close analogies more often turned out to be correct. The findings prove validity of the theoretical model of productive analogy, but also show that further improvement of the model is required by means of including in it the process of restructuring of the initial task.
From the standpoint of historical evolutionary methodology the origin of sociality is analyzed on a larger than commonly accepted scale - as a problem of emergence and growing complexity of “life together”. This approach provides an opportunity to discover a connection between “life together” and leaps of evolution or, as A.S. Severtsov puts it, aromorphoses of complex systems. The authors argue that a leap of “life together” to a qualitatively new level leads to emergence of sociality based on communicative interactions of non-identical individuals. A universal role in development of any complex systems is played by pre-adaptation to uncertainty. According to biologistR. Goldsmith's hypothesis, the most impressive form of pre-adaptation is evolutionarily supported “hopeful freaks” (similar to “degenerates” in fantastic utopias by A. and B. Strugatskys), potentially capable of occupying new niches in case of problems unsolvable within the limits of existing adaptations.
The paper looks at the role of working memory in the effect of “misses in continued search”. The effect consists in missing thesecond target stimulus after a successful detection of the first in a visual search task. One of the theories links the effect to the fact that the detected first stimulus exhausts the resource of the working memory and thus blocks the search. In our study we used a standard working memory task which consisted in memorizing one digit (low working memory load) or six digits (high working memory load) with a subsequent report. A visual search task consisted in looking for the letters T among letters L. There might have been one or two Ts or none at all. The subjects’ task in each trial was to identify the Ts while retaining the information about the digital task in the working memory. The experiment revealed meaningful significance of the number of stimuli, but the factors of the working memory load and interference of stimuli were insignificant. Thus the degree of the effect of “misses in continued search” (the difference between percentage of correct answers in the task with two target stimuli and in the task with one target stimulus) turns out to be the same in all trials irrespective of high or low loading of the working memory. Comparison of the findings of the study with other research data allows a conclusion that the effect of misses is either not linked to working memory or is linked to another memory sub-system. The study also revealed a link between the effect of misses and the number of search stimuli, i.e. the perceptive load of the system of information processing.
The paper presents an adaptation of the ERQ (Emotion Regulation Questionnaire) by Gross (Gross & John, 2003) in the Russian sample ( N = 820). The questionnaire was developed on the basis of the process model of emotion regulation; it measures two strategies of emotion regulation, namely cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. Cognitive reappraisal is a change of the perception of a situation that results in a change of an emotional response; expression suppression is inhibition of an ongoing emotional response. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis showed that the ERQ Russian version has a two-factor structure similar to the original version. Internal consistency of the scales is high (Cronbach's alphas around 0.8); they correlate lowly positively with eachother. Expression suppression scores are higher in Russian men in comparison with women (there are no gender differences in cognitive reappraisal). Convergent validity: emotion regulation strategies correlate positively 0.5 with constructs related to management of one's own emotions and expression control. Discriminant validity: emotion regulation strategies yield a typical correlation pattern with Big Five traits at the level of 0.2 (except for no correlation between expression suppression and Agreeableness and a positive correlation with Conscientiousness) and do not correlate with academic performance regarded here as a manifestation of cognitive abilities. Criterion validity: cognitive reappraisal correlates positively with psychological well-being indices (life satisfaction and hardiness), whereas expression suppression correlates negatively (around 0.2). Russian version of the ERQ is a valid and reliable measure of cognitive reappraisal and expression suppression. The results show that expression suppression is an emotion regulation strategy fairly typical for Russia.