The author shows that in times of great social upheavals even rationally thinking philosophers sometimes resorted to mythological images for understanding and explaining what was happening. Frank also resorted to the semi-lingual symbolism of the dead as a force acting in life. However, in Russian culture the theme of Necropolis, dead souls, a dead house, speaking in the graves of the dead (in Dostoevsky's novel Bobok) sounded quite distinctly. In his classic article De Profundis Frank quite consciously turned to this novel of Dostoevsky for an explanation of quite concrete political realities. But is it possible in reality the influence of the dead. But when social approaches do not work, people reluctantly turn to mythology. The appeal to the theme of the dead is the reaction of the society experiencing a deep crisis. It should be taken into account that the pre-revolutionary years are the years when what Mamardashvili calls “social alchemy” arises. That is, overcoming reality. The author shows that such alchemy is fraught with social catastrophe.
The analysis of the specific points of relationships between the individuality and the state in Nara period.
Article is devoted to the comparative analysis of some models of Human in social sciences. Creation of such models in economy and sociology is constant in all the time of their existence. This reseach interest is not abstract and motivated with the order to predict the consumer preferences of the person. Evolution of the ideas in this area is briefly tracked. The «homo economicus» is compared to image of human in Christianity and the person with rights and duties in law. The utilitarian character of "homo economicus" is emphasized. Outside all models is a potential of Human, that "it isn't theorized".
The author makes a hypothesis that transition from the idea of "homo economicus" to the concept “human capital development” is caused by impossibility to use the idea " homo economicus " in the practical purposes. The idea to count the “human capital" is actively implemented in the legislation and the international acts. Today a set of indicators which should be used when calculating "the human capital" is formed. At the same time use of this concept is speculative, and the ultimate goal of development of "the human capital" remains uncertain. The identification of the person is separately considered, the assumption is made that development of technologies of identification can lead to creation of the new model of human which is formed on his information traces.
In general the conclusion is drawn that ethical control not only of introduction of achievements in the field of biogenetics, but also behind programs of creation of the “new humanity» through “human capital development” and also behind use of technologies of remote identification
The article traces the influence of Cristian moral traditions that perceiv virtue and sin as diametrical opposites, on subsequent European culture (from the theory of ethical sentimentalism to Marxism). Various situations in which such a dichotomous approach fails are being discussed. A detailed analysis of how obvious evil in fact becomes non-obvious good is given.
The article is the first in Russian-speaking literature analysis of Wittgenstein’s "Lecture about ethics" (1929) sustained in a format of polemic with the long-held interpretations of Wittgenstein’s thought. The subject of discussion of these treatments is Wittgenstein's position concerning the status of the highest (ethical) meanings and values. In the article it is shown that Wittgenstein's statements have not a theoretical, but methodical character: Wittgenstein does not claim and does not deny existence of "the highest", he creates the optics in which something is directly detected, which is irreducible to the "trivial" contexts. This method, being mastered, can have the broadest application, allowing to trace the uncommon axiological and semantic components in all cases of their manifestation: in philosophical doctrines, in literature, in political debates, in own experiences, etc. In the last part of article it is shown how Wittgenstein's method discloses the inadequacy of the program of positivism: criticizing the "naive" absolutism of pre-scientific forms of culture (myth, religion, ethics, metaphysics), positivism does not recognize the uncommon contents inherent in these forms and therefore positivism finds it possible to reduce these forms just to the facts, leveling, thereby, their genuine meaning.
In his article the author tries to give a new interpretation of the perception of “new people” Chernyshevsky in the Dostoevsky’s novel “Notes from underground”. The term “new people” has a gospel background. In Russia it was ﬁ rst used by prince Vladimir Baptized. Dostoevsky shows that an ordinary man cannot exist on such a spiritual level.
In this paper, we provide a general account of Plato's later dialectic with its three elements: synagoge, diairesis, symploke. Interrelation of these elements is discussed. The analysis is based mainly on Sophist 253d. We maintain that the dialectical method cannot be reduced to a division by genus and species, but rather is a more complex procedure, which might be considered mostly as a development of the anamnesis theory.
This article represents an attempt of Francisco Suárez to explain whether cognition of single material entities is possible, and what the order and the status of this knowledge is. Essentially, Suárez offers his own solution to the long-standing problem of “how the knowledge about the singular is possible if the true knowledge can only be about the general?”. The peculiarity of his position is that only such knowledge about the singular should be preferred as an original and therefore a more natural state of the cognitive activity of the soul.
The article deals with the notion of political content, the criteria for its selection from policy areas, key political version. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the nature and the variants of political as aesthetic choices.
In his article V.K. Kantor considers complicated relations Russian emigres with these west-european functionaries, who have built organizations, structures, to assist survive Russian intellectuals. Author analyses this problem examining letters of F. Stepun to G. Kullmann. Author also publishes archived letters of Stepun to Kullmann.
This paper is concerned with the theme of salvation in the philosophy and theology of Mordecai Kaplan – an American-Jewish thinker of the XX century and the founder of the Reconstructionist movement in modern Judaism. The notion of salvation is the key element of Kaplan’s philosophy and its analysis is essential for understanding and studying Kaplan’s ideas. Other tasks facing the author of this article include a brief description of Kaplan’s biography, his views on the nature of phenomenon and religion, the main aspects of the Reconstructionist project.
The concept of “Umwelt” coined in science by Jakob von Uexküll is under consideration in the article. Umwelt is specific environment to which every biological individual is adapted and which is constructed by it. Being one of pillars of biosemiotics, this notion demonstrates its methodological force for the development of the modern, non-classical epistemology. According to von Uexküll, Umwelt is built by selection of the meaningful and of the valuable and by involving it in the world of life of an organism; environment is not simply the world of things, but the world of acts of behavior; cognition which is, as a matter of fact, identical to life, is the retrieval of meanings from the world; different living organisms live in different cognitive and living worlds. It is shown that the concept of Umwelt carries profound meanings in itself and can be considered as a prerequisite of development of a wide ecological approach and of the whole range of epistemological notions, such as the connection of cognizing organism and its environment, cognition through action, activity and embodiment of perception, construction in the process of cognition, enactivism.
In the focus of this article is one of the main directions of topical philosophy – posthu-manism. The author distinguishes it from the concept of «transhumanism» and traces its origin, development and current state. If posthumanism was originally concerned with cul-ture (the concept of Ihab Hassan’s criticism), then later he adressed a new ontology. At this point posthumanism approaches such areas of modern philosophy and social theory as ac-tor-network theory and object-oriented ontology. From the last two posthumanism differs in not being satisfied only with the new ontology, which proposes to move away from the tra-ditional anthropocentric concepts such as «man» and turn to «individuals», and offers an ethical and political program (Donna Haraway, Rosi Braidotti). The author comes to the conclu-sion that posthumanism is an alternative to cultural postmodernism, which excluded nature from the object of its attention. Posthumanists insist that the concepts of culture and nature should be reconsidered. In this sense, posthumanism can be considered as one of the versions of «postmod-ernism». However, many researchers in the XXI century, referring to posthumanism, describe it directly through the products of popular culture, thereby weakening the program of posthuman-ism. But, despite this, the emphasis on the era of «anthropocene» allows posthumanism to aban-don postmodern as a historical category, that is involved exactly in culture, and move to the dis-cussion of completely new topics such as ecology, earth, etc.