The article deals with the problems of Evil, Good and Dignity in the thought of Leo Tolstoy that are considered in the perspective of Tolstoy’s criticism of the State bureaucracy and the dehumanization of the Man. Tolstoy was one of the first to examine the concept of “Mass Man” and showed its entrenching in public opinion and ideology in consequence of the law of inertia. The law countervailing social inertia is the law of infection. Tolstoy understood it as wavy spread better from one Human being to another, the involvement of all in a genuine (religious) life through self-denial and in living not for oneself, but for others and for God. Criticism of the State was not meant to anarchic destruction, but rather was connected with his faith in the spontaneous ability of the autonomous individual for responsible judgments and deeds.
In article the thesis that L. Shestov’s irrationalism is the form of the protest against the indifferent to human tragedy culture, which have subordinated individual existence to rational schemes, is proved. Philosophy of L. Shestov is a prevention of accident threatening to mankind to which the rationalism hypertrophy as a cultural value conducts.
Author – the protagonist of Karl Popper’s critical rationalism – considers critically Karl Popper’s philosophy of open society.Subject of the article contains: 1) risks and contretemps of methodological individualism; 2) risks of social development ignored by Popper’s philosophy of open society; 3) author’s conception of human, social and governmental openness.
The author shows that in times of great social upheavals even rationally thinking philosophers sometimes resorted to mythological images for understanding and explaining what was happening. Frank also resorted to the semi-lingual symbolism of the dead as a force acting in life. However, in Russian culture the theme of Necropolis, dead souls, a dead house, speaking in the graves of the dead (in Dostoevsky's novel Bobok) sounded quite distinctly. In his classic article De Profundis Frank quite consciously turned to this novel of Dostoevsky for an explanation of quite concrete political realities. But is it possible in reality the influence of the dead. But when social approaches do not work, people reluctantly turn to mythology. The appeal to the theme of the dead is the reaction of the society experiencing a deep crisis. It should be taken into account that the pre-revolutionary years are the years when what Mamardashvili calls “social alchemy” arises. That is, overcoming reality. The author shows that such alchemy is fraught with social catastrophe.
The analysis of the specific points of relationships between the individuality and the state in Nara period.
Article is devoted to the comparative analysis of some models of Human in social sciences. Creation of such models in economy and sociology is constant in all the time of their existence. This reseach interest is not abstract and motivated with the order to predict the consumer preferences of the person. Evolution of the ideas in this area is briefly tracked. The «homo economicus» is compared to image of human in Christianity and the person with rights and duties in law. The utilitarian character of "homo economicus" is emphasized. Outside all models is a potential of Human, that "it isn't theorized".
The author makes a hypothesis that transition from the idea of "homo economicus" to the concept “human capital development” is caused by impossibility to use the idea " homo economicus " in the practical purposes. The idea to count the “human capital" is actively implemented in the legislation and the international acts. Today a set of indicators which should be used when calculating "the human capital" is formed. At the same time use of this concept is speculative, and the ultimate goal of development of "the human capital" remains uncertain. The identification of the person is separately considered, the assumption is made that development of technologies of identification can lead to creation of the new model of human which is formed on his information traces.
In general the conclusion is drawn that ethical control not only of introduction of achievements in the field of biogenetics, but also behind programs of creation of the “new humanity» through “human capital development” and also behind use of technologies of remote identification
The article traces the influence of Cristian moral traditions that perceiv virtue and sin as diametrical opposites, on subsequent European culture (from the theory of ethical sentimentalism to Marxism). Various situations in which such a dichotomous approach fails are being discussed. A detailed analysis of how obvious evil in fact becomes non-obvious good is given.
The article is the first in Russian-speaking literature analysis of Wittgenstein’s "Lecture about ethics" (1929) sustained in a format of polemic with the long-held interpretations of Wittgenstein’s thought. The subject of discussion of these treatments is Wittgenstein's position concerning the status of the highest (ethical) meanings and values. In the article it is shown that Wittgenstein's statements have not a theoretical, but methodical character: Wittgenstein does not claim and does not deny existence of "the highest", he creates the optics in which something is directly detected, which is irreducible to the "trivial" contexts. This method, being mastered, can have the broadest application, allowing to trace the uncommon axiological and semantic components in all cases of their manifestation: in philosophical doctrines, in literature, in political debates, in own experiences, etc. In the last part of article it is shown how Wittgenstein's method discloses the inadequacy of the program of positivism: criticizing the "naive" absolutism of pre-scientific forms of culture (myth, religion, ethics, metaphysics), positivism does not recognize the uncommon contents inherent in these forms and therefore positivism finds it possible to reduce these forms just to the facts, leveling, thereby, their genuine meaning.
In his article the author tries to give a new interpretation of the perception of “new people” Chernyshevsky in the Dostoevsky’s novel “Notes from underground”. The term “new people” has a gospel background. In Russia it was ﬁ rst used by prince Vladimir Baptized. Dostoevsky shows that an ordinary man cannot exist on such a spiritual level.
In this paper, we provide a general account of Plato's later dialectic with its three elements: synagoge, diairesis, symploke. Interrelation of these elements is discussed. The analysis is based mainly on Sophist 253d. We maintain that the dialectical method cannot be reduced to a division by genus and species, but rather is a more complex procedure, which might be considered mostly as a development of the anamnesis theory.
This article represents an attempt of Francisco Suárez to explain whether cognition of single material entities is possible, and what the order and the status of this knowledge is. Essentially, Suárez offers his own solution to the long-standing problem of “how the knowledge about the singular is possible if the true knowledge can only be about the general?”. The peculiarity of his position is that only such knowledge about the singular should be preferred as an original and therefore a more natural state of the cognitive activity of the soul.
The article deals with the notion of political content, the criteria for its selection from policy areas, key political version. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the nature and the variants of political as aesthetic choices.