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Of all publications in the section: 592
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Article
Kotyrlo E., Westerlund O., Sundström A. BMJ Open. 2016. Vol. 6. P. 1-7.

Objectives To examine the association between marital status and dementia in a cohort of young-old (50–64) and middle-old (65–74) adults, and also whether this may differ by gender. Design Prospective population-based study with follow-up time of up to 10 years. Setting Swedish national register-based study. Participants 2 288 489 individuals, aged 50–74 years, without prior dementia diagnosis at baseline. Dementia was identified using the Swedish National Patient Register and the Cause of Death Register. Outcome measures The influence of marital status on dementia was analysed using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted stepwise for multiple covariates (model 1: adjusted for age and gender; and model 2: additionally adjusted for having adult children, education, income and prior cardiovascular disease). Results During follow-up, 31 572 individuals in the study were identified as demented. Cox regression showed each non-married subcategory to be associated with a significantly higher risk of dementia than the married group, with the highest risk observed among people in the young-old age group, especially among those who were divorced or single (HRs 1.79 vs 1.71, fully adjusted model). Analyses stratified by gender showed gender differences in the young-old group, with indications of divorced men having a higher relative risk compared with divorced women (HRs 2.1 vs 1.7, only-age adjusted model). However, in the fully adjusted model, these differences were attenuated and there was no longer any significant difference between male and female participants. Conclusions Our results suggest that those living alone as non-marrieds may be at risk for early-onset and late-onset dementia. Although more research is needed to understand the underlying mechanism by which marital status is associated with dementia, this suggests that social relationships should be taken seriously as a risk factor for dementia and that social-based interventions may provide an opportunity to reduce the overall dementia risk.

Added: Sep 15, 2016
Article
Vlassov V. The Lancet. 2017. Vol. 390. No. 10100. P. 1423-1459.

Background

The UN's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are grounded in the global ambition of “leaving no one behind”. Understanding today's gains and gaps for the health-related SDGs is essential for decision makers as they aim to improve the health of populations. As part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016), we measured 37 of the 50 health-related SDG indicators over the period 1990–2016 for 188 countries, and then on the basis of these past trends, we projected indicators to 2030.

Methods

We used standardised GBD 2016 methods to measure 37 health-related indicators from 1990 to 2016, an increase of four indicators since GBD 2015. We substantially revised the universal health coverage (UHC) measure, which focuses on coverage of essential health services, to also represent personal health-care access and quality for several non-communicable diseases. We transformed each indicator on a scale of 0–100, with 0 as the 2·5th percentile estimated between 1990 and 2030, and 100 as the 97·5th percentile during that time. An index representing all 37 health-related SDG indicators was constructed by taking the geometric mean of scaled indicators by target. On the basis of past trends, we produced projections of indicator values, using a weighted average of the indicator and country-specific annualised rates of change from 1990 to 2016 with weights for each annual rate of change based on out-of-sample validity. 24 of the currently measured health-related SDG indicators have defined SDG targets, against which we assessed attainment.

Findings

Globally, the median health-related SDG index was 56·7 (IQR 31·9–66·8) in 2016 and country-level performance markedly varied, with Singapore (86·8, 95% uncertainty interval 84·6–88·9), Iceland (86·0, 84·1–87·6), and Sweden (85·6, 81·8–87·8) having the highest levels in 2016 and Afghanistan (10·9, 9·6–11·9), the Central African Republic (11·0, 8·8–13·8), and Somalia (11·3, 9·5–13·1) recording the lowest. Between 2000 and 2016, notable improvements in the UHC index were achieved by several countries, including Cambodia, Rwanda, Equatorial Guinea, Laos, Turkey, and China; however, a number of countries, such as Lesotho and the Central African Republic, but also high-income countries, such as the USA, showed minimal gains. Based on projections of past trends, the median number of SDG targets attained in 2030 was five (IQR 2–8) of the 24 defined targets currently measured. Globally, projected target attainment considerably varied by SDG indicator, ranging from more than 60% of countries projected to reach targets for under-5 mortality, neonatal mortality, maternal mortality ratio, and malaria, to less than 5% of countries projected to achieve targets linked to 11 indicator targets, including those for childhood overweight, tuberculosis, and road injury mortality. For several of the health-related SDGs, meeting defined targets hinges upon substantially faster progress than what most countries have achieved in the past.

Interpretation

GBD 2016 provides an updated and expanded evidence base on where the world currently stands in terms of the health-related SDGs. Our improved measure of UHC offers a basis to monitor the expansion of health services necessary to meet the SDGs. Based on past rates of progress, many places are facing challenges in meeting defined health-related SDG targets, particularly among countries that are the worst off. In view of the early stages of SDG implementation, however, opportunity remains to take actions to accelerate progress, as shown by the catalytic effects of adopting the Millennium Development Goals after 2000. With the SDGs' broader, bolder development agenda, multisectoral commitments and investments are vital to make the health-related SDGs within reach of all populations.

 

Added: Sep 15, 2017
Article
Vlassov V. The Lancet. 2016. Vol. 388. No. 10053. P. 1813-1850.

Background

In September, 2015, the UN General Assembly established the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs specify 17 universal goals, 169 targets, and 230 indicators leading up to 2030. We provide an analysis of 33 health-related SDG indicators based on the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015).

Methods

We applied statistical methods to systematically compiled data to estimate the performance of 33 health-related SDG indicators for 188 countries from 1990 to 2015. We rescaled each indicator on a scale from 0 (worst observed value between 1990 and 2015) to 100 (best observed). Indices representing all 33 health-related SDG indicators (health-related SDG index), health-related SDG indicators included in the Millennium Development Goals (MDG index), and health-related indicators not included in the MDGs (non-MDG index) were computed as the geometric mean of the rescaled indicators by SDG target. We used spline regressions to examine the relations between the Socio-demographic Index (SDI, a summary measure based on average income per person, educational attainment, and total fertility rate) and each of the health-related SDG indicators and indices.

Findings

In 2015, the median health-related SDG index was 59∙3 (95% uncertainty interval 56∙8–61∙8) and varied widely by country, ranging from 85∙5 (84∙2–86∙5) in Iceland to 20∙4 (15∙4–24∙9) in Central African Republic. SDI was a good predictor of the health-related SDG index (r²=0∙88) and the MDG index (r²=0∙92), whereas the non-MDG index had a weaker relation with SDI (r²=0∙79). Between 2000 and 2015, the health-related SDG index improved by a median of 7∙9 (IQR 5∙0–10∙4), and gains on the MDG index (a median change of 10∙0 [6∙7–13∙1]) exceeded that of the non-MDG index (a median change of 5∙5 [2∙1–8∙9]). Since 2000, pronounced progress occurred for indicators such as met need with modern contraception, under-5 mortality, and neonatal mortality, as well as the indicator for universal health coverage tracer interventions. Moderate improvements were found for indicators such as HIV and tuberculosis incidence, minimal changes for hepatitis B incidence took place, and childhood overweight considerably worsened.Interpretation

GBD provides an independent, comparable avenue for monitoring progress towards the health-related SDGs. Our analysis not only highlights the importance of income, education, and fertility as drivers of health improvement but also emphasises that investments in these areas alone will not be sufficient.

Although considerable progress on the health-related MDG indicators has been made, these gains will need to be sustained and, in many cases, accelerated to achieve the ambitious SDG targets. The minimal improvement in or worsening of health-related indicators beyond the MDGs highlight the need for additional resources to effectively address the expanded scope of the health-related SDGs

Added: Sep 25, 2016
Article
Iscan Z., Yüksel A., Dokur Z. et al. Digital Signal Processing. 2009. Vol. 19. No. 5. P. 890-901.

In this study, a novel incremental supervised neural network (ISNN) is proposed for the segmentation of medical images. Performance of the ISNN is investigated for tissue segmentation in medical images obtained from various imaging modalities. Two feature extraction methods based on transform and moments are comparatively investigated to segment the tissues in medical images. Two-dimensional (2D) continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and the moments of the gray-level histogram (MGH) are computed in order to form the feature vectors of ultrasound (US) bladder and phantom images, X-ray computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) head images. In the 2D-CWT method, feature vectors are formed by the intensity of one pixel of each wavelet-plane of different energy bands. The MGH represents the tissues within the sub-windows by using the spatial variation of image intensities. In this study, the ISNN and Grow and Learn (GAL) network are employed for the segmentation task. It is observed that the ISNN has significantly eliminated the disadvantages of the GAL network in the segmentation of the medical images.

Added: Jan 22, 2015
Article
Maltseva D. V., Vladimir V Galatenko, Samatov T. R. et al. BMC Research Notes. 2014. Vol. 7.

BACKGROUND:

Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is an extremely malignant form of breast cancer which can be easily misdiagnosed. Conclusive prognostic IBC molecular biomarkers which are also providing the perspectives for targeted therapy are lacking so far. The aim of this study was to reveal the IBC-specific miRNA expression profile and to evaluate its association with clinicopathological parameters.

METHODS:

miRNA expression profiles of 13 IBC and 17 non-IBC patients were characterized using comprehensive Affymetrix GeneChip miRNA 3.0 microarray platform. Bioinformatic analysis was used to reveal IBC-specific miRNAs, deregulated pathways and potential miRNA targets.

RESULTS:

31 differentially expressed miRNAs characterize IBC and mRNAs regulated by them and their associated pathways can functionally be attributed to IBC progression. In addition, a minimal predictive set of 4 miRNAs characteristic for the IBC phenotype and associated with the TP53 mutational status in breast cancer patients was identified.

CONCLUSIONS:

We have characterized the complete miRNome of inflammatory breast cancer and found differentially expressed miRNAs which reliably classify the patients to IBC and non-IBC groups. We found that the mRNAs and pathways likely regulated by these miRNAs are highly relevant to cancer progression. Furthermore a minimal IBC-related predictive set of 4 miRNAs associated with the TP53 mutational status and survival for breast cancer patients was identified.

Added: Oct 28, 2015
Article
Kaipio M., Novitski Nikolai, Tervaniemi M. et al. NeuroReport. 2001. Vol. 12. P. 1517-1522.

Event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured from 24 chronic closed head injury (CHI) patients and 18 age- and education-matched controls. The oddball paradigm was applied while subjects were watching a silent movie. The standard (p=0.8) sound of 75 ms duration had a basic frequency of 500 Hz with harmonic partials of 1000 Hz and 1500 Hz, whereas these frequencies for the pitch deviant were each 10% higher. The frequencies of the duration deviant matched with those of the standard but was 25 ms in duration. The MMN (mismatch negativity), generated by the brain's automatic auditory change-detector mechanism, was elicited by both deviants. No significant differences in the MMN latency or amplitude for either pitch or duration deviants were found between the groups. However, the MMN amplitude for the pitch deviant decreased in the patient group during the experiment considerably faster than in controls, suggesting a faster vigilance decrement in the patients

Added: Jul 10, 2015
Article
Avdoshin S. M., Elena Yu. Pesotskaya. Business Informatics. 2016. No. 3 (37). P. 7-13.

This paper analyses the possibility of using mobile technologies and applications in the Russian healthcare system and evaluates the opportunities for its further development. The research provides an overview of global trends in digital healthcare with some examples of the best solutions for eHealth (healthcare practice supported by electronic processes and communication). An analysis is made of the Russian medical system in order to identify the main stages of its formation, achievements and areas for improvement. The authors also conducted research into the current Russian medical healthcare system aimed at identifying gaps and concerns regarding security, reliability and service availability for on-line and mobile services and personal health records in Russia. Certain diffi culties in the establishment of an up-to-date healthcare system in Russia with examples of barriers are also analyzed to get a better understanding of the prospects for mobile healthcare development. Starting from the premise that support for information technologies is essential to medical healthcare development, the paper gives an overview of the current IT initiatives of the Russian government in the fi eld of medicine and provides examples of the independent applications of Russian software developers for digital and mobile healthcare. As a result of the research, three possible development scenarios of Russian mobile healthcare are described. The barriers identifi ed as well as worldwide healthcare transformation aspects such as cost reduction and personalization are considered in the possible scenarios.

Added: Aug 18, 2016
Article
Pianykh O., Pospelova K., Kamboj N. Journal of Digital Imaging. 2018. Vol. 31. No. 6. P. 768-775.

Humans can determine image quality instantly and intuitively, but the mechanism of human perception of image quality is unknown. The purpose of this work was to identify the most important quantitative metrics responsible for the human perception of digital image quality. Digital images from two different datasets—CT tomography (MedSet) and scenic photographs of trees (TreeSet)—were presented in random pairs to unbiased human viewers. The observers were then asked to select the best-quality image from each image pair. The resulting human-perceived image quality (HPIQ) ranks were obtained from these pairwise comparisons with two different ranking approaches. Using various digital image quality metrics reported in the literature, we built two models to predict the observed HPIQ rankings, and to identify the most important HPIQ predictors. Evaluating the quality of our HPIQ models as the fraction of falsely predicted pairwise comparisons (inverted image pairs), we obtained 70–71% of correct HPIQ predictions for the first, and 73–76%for the second approach. Taking into account that 10–14% of inverted pairs were already present in the original rankings, limitations of the models, and only a few principal HPIQ predictors used, we find this result very satisfactory. We obtained a small set of most significant quantitative image metrics associated with the human perception of image quality. This can be used for automatic image quality ranking, machine learning, and quality-improvement algorithms.

Added: Feb 5, 2019
Article
Kelbert M., Sazonov I., Bocharov G. et al. Mathematical Modelling of Natural Phenomena. 2017. Vol. 12. No. 5. P. 63-77.

Many human infections with viruses such as human immunode ciency virus type 1 (HIV{1) are characterized by low numbers of founder viruses for which the random effects and discrete nature of populations have a strong effect on the dynamics, e.g., extinction versus spread. It remains to be established whether HIV transmission is a stochastic process on the whole. In this study, we consider the simplest (so-called, 'consensus') virus dynamics model and develop a computational methodology for building an equivalent stochastic model based on Markov Chain accounting for random interactions between the components. The model is used to study the evolution of the probability densities for the virus and target cell populations. It predicts the probability of infection spread as a function of the number of the transmitted viruses. A hybrid algorithm is suggested to compute efficiently the dynamics in state space domain characterized by a mix of small and large species densities.

Added: Oct 21, 2017
Article
Cepeda J. A., Niccolai L. M., Eritsyan K. et al. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2013. Vol. 132. No. 3. P. 571-579.

Background

In Russia, injection drug use and transmission of blood-borne pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are inextricably linked, however the burden of alcohol use remains unexplored among injection drug users (IDUs).

Methods

Individuals who were 18 years of age and older and had injected drugs in the previous 30 days were recruited in the cities of Novosibirsk and Ivanovo by respondent driven sampling. Consenting individuals were administered a quantitative survey instrument and provided blood samples for serological testing.

Results

In Novosibirsk and Ivanovo, 29% and 35% of respondents were categorized as moderate/heavy drinkers respectively. Individuals reported problems related to alcohol use that affected their physical health (23%), family (55%), and induced financial hardships (43%). In the multivariate analysis, we found that methamphetamine injection in the past 12 months was a strong and significant correlate of moderate/heavy drinking in Novosibirsk (aOR = 5.63 95% CI: [1.01–31.47]) and Ivanovo (aOR = 3.81 95% CI [2.20–6.62]). There was poor agreement between self-reported HCV status and HCV test results (kappa = −0.05 and 0.26 in Novosibirsk and Ivanovo respectively). IDUs who correctly knew their HCV seropositive status in Novosibirsk and IDUs who correctly knew their HCV seronegative status in Ivanovo were significantly more likely to be moderate/heavy drinkers.

Conclusion

Alcohol use is problematic among IDUs who are at high risk for HCV. Future interventions should target IDUs who are moderate/heavy drinkers in order to prevent liver complications resulting from HCV infection.

Added: Mar 12, 2018
Article
Рубцов Ю. П., Goryunov K., Romanov A. et al. Stem Cells International. 2017. P. 1-16.
Added: Apr 10, 2019
Article
Kvasha E. A., Kharkova T. L., Yumaguzin V. Демографическое обозрение. 2014. No. 5. P. 85-108.

The article discusses long-term mortality trends (since 1956) from external causes of death in Russia. Russia has long lagged behind developed countries in this domain. The level of mortality from external causes of death remains high and its structure is still archaic with large contribution of homicides, alcohol poisoning and injuries of undetermined intent.

Excess number of deaths from life tables of Russia and Western European countries is compared. It is shown that in Russia the greatest excess losses are associated with mortality from poisonings among both sexes, suicide among men and homicide among women.

Mortality from external causes, along with mortality from diseases of the circulatory system, has had a significant impact on life expectancy. In general, over the period 1956-2012 the increase in mortality from external causes in the 15-64 age group reduced life expectancy by 2.6 years for males and 0.7 years for females.

The decline, starting in 2003, of mortality from external causes of death has slightly reduced the gap between Russia and developed countries, bringing the current Russian level closer to those levels reached in Russia in the mid-1960s and 1980s. However, given the fluctuations of mortality from external causes, it is premature to say whether the current decline in mortality is robust.

 

Added: Feb 14, 2016
Article
Kvasha E. A. Демографическое обозрение. 2014. No. 5. P. 69-84.

Infant mortality in Russia has been decreasing for several decades. In 2011, however, Russia’s infant mortality rate reached a level (7.4 per 1000 live births) more than three times higher than in countries with minimal levels. In April 2012, Russia adopted new definitions of live births and stillbirths, which are much closer to the corresponding WHO definitions than those used before. The transition to these new definitions was meant to increase the rates of perinatal, early neonatal and infant mortality in general for children weighing up to 1000 grams – those concerned by the changed definition. This paper analyzes the changes in the structure and dynamics of death in children under one year of age since the transition to the new definitions of live births and stillbirths, according to birth weight and period of death based on official and medical statistics. It looks at the possibility of distortion of both infant and perinatal mortality and their components. Particular attention is given to an analysis of the structure of infant mortality by age and cause of death in Russia in comparison with other countries. The regional aspect of changes in infant mortality for 2011-2012 is also studied herein.

Added: May 31, 2016
Article
Shaposhnikov D., Revich B., Bellander T. et al. Epidemiology. 2014. Vol. 25. No. 3. P. 359-364.

Prolonged high temperatures and air pollution from wildfires often occur together, and the two may interact in their effects on mortality. However, there are few data on such possible interactions.

Methods: We analyzed day-to-day variations in the number of deaths in Moscow, Russia, in relation to air pollution levels and temperature during the disastrous heat wave and wildfire of 2010. Corresponding data for the period 2006-2009 were used for comparison. Daily average levels of PM10 and ozone were obtained from several continuous measurement stations. The daily number of nonaccidental deaths from specific causes was extracted from official records. Analyses of interactions considered the main effect of temperature as well as the added effect of prolonged high temperatures and the interaction with PM10

 

Added: Mar 20, 2014
Article
Nazarova M., Piradov M. A., Novikov P. et al. European Journal of Neurology, Supplement. 2015. Vol. 22. No. S1. P. 34-35.

Hand motor recovery prognosis in stroke patients is crucial to develop a realistic individual rehabilitation plan. The aim of this study was to perform a multimodal assessment in chronic ischemic stroke patients and to compare predictive role of corticospinal tract (CST) integrity measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and navigated TMS (nTMS), and functional condition of the motor cortex measured by functional MRI (fMRI) and multi-muscle nTMS cortical mapping for hand motor recovery.Total of 30 patients with the only chronic supratentorial ischemic stroke and various severity of hand paresis were enrolled (12 females, medium age 50,0±8,0). The assessment included fractional anisotropy FA (index, %) measurement in internal capsule (ic), cerebral peduncle (pc) and pons. Functional assessment included analysis of BOLD response induced by passive motor task, assessment of intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) phenomena in Abductor Pollicis Brevis (APB) and nTMS mapping of APB and Extensor Digitorum Communis (EDC) cortical representations in both hemispheres. A group of 14 healthy volunteers (7 females, mean age 36,6±15,2) completed fMRI and nTMS investigation. A strong correlation between clinical outcome and FA let to consider FA as an available clinical measurement for hand motor prognosis. Significantly higher disinhibition in the unaffected hemisphere (UH) in well recovered and normal SICI in the UH in poorly recovered patients allow to suppose that interhemispheric interaction might change extensively by chronic phase. A software for multi-muscle nTMS mapping was developed, though this approach need deeper exploration.

Added: Feb 17, 2017
Article
Kulikova S., Hertz-Pannier L., Dehaene-Lambertz G. et al. Brain Structure and Function. 2015. Vol. 220. No. 6. P. 3657-3672.

In vivo evaluation of the brain white matter maturation is still a challenging task with no existing gold standards. In this article we propose an original approach to evaluate the early maturation of the white matter bundles, which is based on comparison of infant and adult groups using the Mahalanobis distance computed from four complementary MRI parameters: quantitative qT1 and qT2 relaxation times, longitudinal λ║ and transverse λ⊥ diffusivities from diffusion tensor imaging. Such multi-parametric approach is expected to better describe maturational asynchrony than conventional univariate approaches because it takes into account complementary dependencies of the parameters on different maturational processes, notably the decrease in water content and the myelination. Our approach was tested on 17 healthy infants (aged 3- to 21-week old) for 18 different bundles. It finely confirmed maturational asynchrony across the bundles: the spino-thalamic tract, the optic radiations, the cortico-spinal tract and the fornix have the most advanced maturation, while the superior longitudinal and arcuate fasciculi, the anterior limb of the internal capsule and the external capsule have the most delayed maturation. Furthermore, this approach was more reliable than univariate approaches as it revealed more maturational relationships between the bundles and did not violate a priori assumptions on the temporal order of the bundle maturation. Mahalanobis distances decreased exponentially with age in all bundles, with the only difference between them explained by different onsets of maturation. Estimation of these relative delays confirmed that the most dramatic changes occur during the first post-natal year.

Added: Oct 22, 2015
Article
Kozintseva E., Dragoy O., Malyutina S. et al. Steam-, Spreak- en Taalpathologie. 2013. Vol. 18. P. 98-99.

Key characteristics of non-fluent (Broca, motor) aphasia are, among others, verb finding difficulties and effortful speech output. These characteristics are related to different levels of speech production (lexical retrieval and motor execution). This study was aimed at identifying patterns of its reorganization depending on the locus of the linguistic deficit in patients with non-fluent aphasia.

Added: Nov 16, 2013
Article
Shchekotikhin A., Glazunova V.A., Dezhenkova L. et al. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry. 2007. Vol. 15. No. 7. P. 2651-2659.

The efficacy of anthracycline based anticancer drugs is limited by pleiotropic drug resistance of tumor cells. Aiming at the design of anthracyclinone congeners capable of circumventing drug resistance, we synthesized naphthoindole containing derivatives of tryptophan and tryptamine. In doing so we adapted the traditional, gramine based approach for tryptophan and tryptamine synthesis. The most potent new compound, 3-(2-aminoethyl)-4,11-dihydroxynaphtho[2,3-f]indole-5,10-dione (16), was equally cytotoxic (IC50 within low micromolar concentrations) for human K562 leukemia and HCT116 colon carcinoma cell lines and their isogenic sublines with genetically defined determinants of altered drug response, that is, the expression of the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein and loss of pro-apoptotic p53. Each of these mechanisms conferred resistance to the reference drug adriamycin. In contrast, naphthotryptamine 16, although less potent than adriamycin, was equally toxic for wild type cell lines and drug resistant counterparts. Moreover, at 3-5 μM 16 inhibited topoisomerase I in vitro. Thus, our novel naphthoindole based derivative of tryptamine gained new activities important for anticancer therapy, namely, suppression of topoisomerase I and the ability to overcome resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein expression and p53 dysfunction. 

Added: Jul 9, 2015
Article
Nikolai Novitski, Huotilainen M., Tervaniemi M. et al. Clinical Neurophysiology. 2007. Vol. 118. P. 412-419.
The precision of sound frequency discrimination in newborn infants in the 250–4000-Hz frequency range was determined using the neonatal electrophysiological mismatch response (MMR), the infant equivalent of adult mismatch negativity (MMN). The electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded in 11 full-term sleeping newborn infants mostly in active sleep (67% of the time). Pure tones were presented through loudspeakers in an oddball paradigm with a 800-ms stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). Each stimulus block contained a standard (p = 0.76) of 250, 1000, or 4000 Hz in frequency (in separate blocks) and deviants with a frequency change of either 5% or 20% of the standard (p = 0.12 of each). A positive ERP deflection was found at 200–300 ms from stimulus onset in response to the 20% deviation from the 250, 1000, and 4000 Hz standard frequencies. The amplitude of the response in the 200–300 ms time window was significantly larger for the 20% than 5% deviation. We observed in newborn infants automatic frequency discrimination as reflected by a positive MMR. The newborns were able to discriminate frequency change of 20% in the 250–4000-Hz frequency range, whereas the discrimination of the 5% frequency change was not statistically confirmed. The present data hence suggest that the neonatal frequency discrimination has lower resolution than that in adult and older children data.
Added: Jul 10, 2015
Article
Rykov Y., Meylakhs P., Sinyavskaya Y. American Behavioral Scientist. 2017. Vol. 61. No. 7. P. 688-706.

With rapid growth of online social network sites, the issue of health-related online communities and its social and behavioral implications has become increasingly important for public health. Unfortunately, online communities often become vehicles for promotion of pernicious misinformation, in particular, that HIV virus is a myth (AIDS denialism). This study seeks to explore online users’ behavior and interactions within AIDS-denialist community to identify and estimate the number of those, who potentially are most susceptible to AIDS-denialist arguments—“the risk group” in terms of becoming AIDS denialists. Social network analysis was used for examining the most numerous AIDS-denialist community (over 15,000 members) in the most popular Russian SNS “VK.com.” In addition, content analysis was used for collecting data on attitudes toward AIDS-denialist arguments and participants’ self-disclosed HIV status. Two data sets were collected to analyze friendship ties and communication interactions among community members. We have identified the core of online community—cohesive and dedicated AIDS denialists, and the risk group: users who communicate with core members, and, thus, can be more susceptible to the AIDS-denialist propaganda and their health behaviors (e.g., refusing treatment). Analysis allowed to significantly reduce the target audience for possible intervention campaigns and simultaneously increase the accuracy of determining the risk group composition.

Added: Apr 18, 2017
Article
Shtyrov Y. The Neuroscientist. 2012. Vol. 18. No. 4. P. 312-319.

Humans are unique in developing large lexicons as their communication tool; to achieve this, they are able to learn new words rapidly. However, neural bases of this rapid learning, which may be an expression of a more general cognitive mechanism likely rooted in plasticity at cellular and synaptic levels, are not yet understood. In this update, the author highlights a selection of recent studies that attempted to trace word learning in the human brain noninvasively. A number of brain areas, most notably in hippocampus and neocortex, appear to take part in word acquisition. Critically, the currently available data not only demonstrate the hippocampal role in rapid encoding followed by slow-rate consolidation of cortical word memory traces but also suggest immediate neocortical involvement in the word memory trace formation. Echoing early behavioral studies in ultra-rapid word learning, the reviewed neuroimaging experiments can be taken to suggest that our brain may effectively form new cortical circuits online, as it gets exposed to novel linguistic patterns in the sensory input.

Added: Oct 23, 2014