Cognitive flexibility is considered as a person’s mental ability to organize one’s own cognitive activity and intellectual behavior in response to changing environmental conditions. Though the construct of cognitive flexibility has been well investigated in different contexts of its manifestation, yet there is no general operational definition of this construct in cognitive studies. This study aimed to explore the current theoretical views on the problem of a person’s cognitive flexibility and to indicate the contribution of these views to the development of the measures of cognitive flexibility within the psychological treatment. In brief review of Russian and foreign cognitive studies, the ideas about the term “cognitive flexibility” has been summarized as a mental ability of a person, a skill to change cognitive attitudes in response to the changing conditions of one’s own life. It was shown that there has been a lack of definitions in Russian to describe the phenomenon of cognitive flexibility, and it has not been studied in terms of content and forms of its manifestation in human behavior, especially, in intellectual behavior. In foreign cognitive studies the term cognitive flexibility is widespread. It is referred to in studies of cognitive abilities and skills. The majority of researchers determine its operational definition as a general property of personality’s cognitive system. At the same time, it is not known what this property is. For the purposes of the present study, the approach to examine the person’s flexibility has been put forward. It was considered as a specific ability of cognitive system and a property of different cognitive processes. This approach uses abilities as the properties of functional system, which bring about specific mental functions. In reviewing the existing measures of cognitive flexibility, it was demonstrated that the lack of operational definition of this construct usually leads to the choice of the instrument in accordance to aims and goals of the research. Cognitive tests and self-report measures were considered as two main instruments in examining person’s flexibility. Their applicability was proved and it was shown that the instruments examine the type of cognitive flexibility needed for change to adaptive behavior within psychological treatment.
The paper summarizes the principal trends and outcomes of coping research in psychology and presents the results of 3 studies (N=590) aimed at Russian-language adaptation of the COPE inventory (Carver, Scheier, Weintraub, 1989). The results indicate the reliability and structural, convergent, and discriminant validity of the inventory. The structure of the test was supported by confirmatory factor analysis. Coping strategies showed predictable associations with subjective well-being, self-regulation, and personality resource indicators. Gender and age differences in self-reported coping strategy use are presented. Specific coping strategies were associated with academic performance, self-regulation effectiveness, and psychological well-being in people with disabilities.
The paper presents research and educational activities of The International laboratory for Socio-Cultural research of HSE' Expert Institute
This article examines intercultural relations in Crimea - one of the multicultural regions of Russia. Our goal was to test three hypotheses in Crimea: the multiculturalism hypothesis, the integration hypothesis, and the contact hypothesis. The sample included members of the ethnic majority in Crimea, Russians (N = 195), and members of the ethnic minorities, Crimean Tatars (N = 197) and Ukrainians (N = 196). Data processing was carried out using path analysis. We additionally conducted 25 interviews with the members of three ethnic groups to deeper analyze the results of the quantitative study. The results showed partial support for the multiculturalism hypothesis: perceived security was linked with support for a multicultural ideology and integration among Russians and Ukrainians, and support for multicultural ideology among Crimean Tatars, however, there was no significant correlation with tolerance in the three samples. The contact hypothesis was partially confirmed: intercultural contacts predicted support for tolerance among Russians, preference for integration among Ukrainians, and both tolerance and integration among Crimean Tatars. Integration hypothesis was fully confirmed: preference for integration promotes well-being in three samples. However, the preference for separation promoted self-esteem among Crimean Tatars and life satisfaction among three ethnic groups. The results of the research are discussed from the perspective of the socio-cultural and historical context of interethnic relations in Crimea.
The research is devoted to transmission of individual values, in particular the impact of socio-cul- tural context of residence (urban and rural area) on the similarities and differences in values of ado- lescents and their parents. The research method was a socio-psychological survey. As the instrument we used the Portrait Values Questionnaire by S. Schwartz (PVQ-R). We interviewed representatives of two generations: parents and children from 91 families in Moscow and 62 families in rural areas (n=306). For mathematical-statistical data processing we used: Student’s ttest, intraclass correlation and multivariate analysis of variance. The study established that intra-family similarity in values from blocks Openness to Change, Self-Enhancement and Self-Transcendence is somewhat higher in the families living in the city than in the families living in the village, and the value similarity in block Conservation is higher in families residing in the village. It is also established that adolescents’ values are more similar to the values of peers than to parents ' values, in both urban and rural societies. But at the same time, we identified value differences between urban and rural families. The greatest dif- ferences were observed in values of block Self-Transcendence. The value similarity of this block is higher in families living in the city than in families living in rural areas. In both samples we observed two options for the transmission of values: from parents to children and value influence of friends, peers, and socio-cultural context (place of residence). In urban society Self-Transcendence values are better transmitted, and in rural society Conservation values are better transmitted.
The article describes the experience of usage of a measure designed to investigate understanding of uncertainty in life situations as an integral phenomenon with its own mechanisms. A measure is designed to ask participants to generate situations with uncertainty on the basis of given stimulus situations. The participants' texts obtained in the study were analyzed within the frame work of qualitative approach and «grounded theory» method. Several versions about phenomenon's nature have been proposed as a result, one of the versions is presented in the article.
The studies on personal relationships differ by the large diversity of the topics touched, methodological and theoretical approaches, empirical results and significant differences in practical value of discovered ideas and developed methods. The important gap is found among these studies though. This gap lies in construction of strict and holistic psychological models of relationships as well as in structure modeling of ways of their research and interpretation. Also the problem of oppositions in the structure of relationships and their processes and effects of realization poses very rarely in studies of relationships. It makes difficult to understand the collision of relationships, resources of their development and conditions of regress. The multidimensional and contradictory ties of relationships with culture, which define their axiological character, are among the unexplored issues.
Subjective treatment of oppositions influences the dynamics of cognition, ethical, esthetic, creative, reflective activity of personality in culture and in communication with other people. The analytical models, oriented to explication of these oppositions of relationships, are scarce among the tools of analysis of relationships in personal diagnostics, counseling and psychotherapy. The grounding of new points of view on the role of oppositions in life formation of axiological relationships, on elaboration of multivariate theoretical and hermeneutical models of analysis of relationships’ oppositions, on approbation and validation of models in the practice of individual cases, focused on detection of potentials of relationships’ development are needed in the perspective of evolution of psychological knowledge about personal relationships. The authors offer their own way to solve these tasks.
The results of psychometric validation of a model of in-group identification (Leach et al., 2008) in three Russian samples are presented. The theoretical model is hierarchically structured. It includes five components (individual self-stereotyping, in-group homogeneity, in-group solidarity, satisfaction with in-group, and centrality of in-group identity) that form two second order factors (self-definition and self-investment). The samples included members of a social group («students», N = 196), an ethnic group («Russians», N = 146), and a religious group («Orthodox Christians», N = 249). In study 1 different measurement models were compared for each sample using confirmatory factor analysis. The results support the hierarchical model with two second-order factors. The sets of items comprising each of the five in-group identification components have high internal consistency and discriminant validity. Study 2 focused on the validity of the new instrument in the ethnic group subsample using a number of Russian-language ethnic identity measures. The data indicate convergent validity of the new measure, indicating that its five scales tap into cognitive, affective, and behavioral components of identity with an ethnic group. The results of two studies show that the new Russian-language instrument based on the model of in-group identification has convergent and discriminant validity. Limitations of the study and future directions for the development of the instrument are discussed.