The paper describes the principle of the EU decision-making process as a unique mechanism of the European integration. The latter is of fundamental importance for the overall European Union structure functioning. Author reviews main achievements recently made by EU in the area of development and improvement of the EU decision-making mechanism. The EU decision-making process and its different structural elements can be applied to a range of fields such as economy and policy, science and education, and even to the everyday communication interpersonal practices. The paper reveals the main procedures and stages of the EU policy-making process aimed to meet interests of different countries with a different political weight. Focusing on the main functions and responsibilities of the European Council and Parliament and European Commission author illustrates his thoughts and conclusions with a variety of examples of policy-making process across European Union.
This paper sets out to analyse the need for better “transparency tools” which inform university stakeholders about the quality of universities. First, it gives an overview of what is understood by the concept of transparency tools and those that are currently available. Authors then critique current transparency tools’ methodologies, looking in detail at the question of data sources, the risks involved in constructing league tables and the challenges in using composite indicators. Lastly, authors argue in favour of developing a new principle for transparency tools: that of multidimensional ranking.
The article presents a template methodology for the Russian universities multidimensional ranking developed within the project «Developing and Approbating a Template Methodology for National Ranking of Higher Education Institutions» implemented by the National Training Foundation within a project with the Ministry of Education and Science, RF in 2011 - 2013. More than 100 Russian higher education institutions participated in the methodology approbation in 2012.
Mudrets pomogaet Podnebesnoy: razvitie seti Institutov Konfutsiya kak instrument realizatsii politiki «myagkoy sily» KNR v Bol'shoy Vostochnoy Azii[The Sage Helps the Celestial Empire: Promotion of the Confucius Institutes’ Global Network as an Instrument of the PRC’s Soft Power Policy in the Great Eastern Asia Region]. INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS RESEARCH JOURNAL, vol. 10, no 1 (in Russian)
The relationship between income inequality and economic growth is complex. Some inequality is integral to the effective functioning of a market economy and the incentives needed for investment and growth. But inequality can also be destructive to growth, for example, by amplifying the risk of crisis or making it difficult for the poor to invest in education. The evidence has also been mixed: some find that average growth over long periods of time is higher with more initial equality; others find that an increase in equality today tends to lower growth in the near term. The authors find that longer growth spells are robustly associated with more equality in the income distribution. For example, closing, say, half the inequality gap between Latin America and emerging Asia would, according to our central estimates, more than double the expected duration of a growth spell. Inequality typically changes only slowly, but a number of countries in our sample have experienced improvements in income distribution of this magnitude in the course of a growth spell. Inequality still matters, moreover, even when other determinants of growth duration—external shocks, initial income, institutional quality, openness to trade, and macroeconomic stability—are taken into account. A key implication of these results is that it is difficult to separate analyses of growth and income distribution. The immediate role for policy, however, is less clear. The analysis below does perhaps tilt the balance towards the notion that attention to inequality can bring significant longer-run benefits for growth. Over longer horizons, reduced inequality and sustained growth may thus be two sides of the same coin.
The article addresses the question whether the New Development Bank (NDB) will promote the role of the BRICS countries in the global financial architecture and foster their development. It begins by comparing the key multilateral development banks (World Bank, Asian Development Bank, African Development Bank and Inter-American Development Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development) and national development banks of the BRICS countries with the newly established institution. The NDB’s purpose is to mobilize resources for infrastructure and sustainable development projects in the member countries. This purpose, as author concludes on the base of the analysis, partly duplicates the work of the existing institutions. However, the NDB could add to the functions of the existing institutions and become a significant development bank for its members. The best way to achieve this significance is to implement multilateral projects in the areas mentioned above. The article also examines the current role of the BRICS countries in the global financial architecture and the potential for an increased role, brought by the establishment of the BRICS bank. The founding countries of the NDB will jointly determine the volume and directions of its financial aid. In addition, in contrast to the Bretton Woods institutions, the BRICS countries can change the rules of the development financial aid, particularly the conditions and system for monitoring results. The article concludes that the BRICS countries have created a possible way to change the current system of development finance and therefore to increase the role of the BRICS countries in the global financial architecture.