The findings of an empirical study conducted with the help of an original procedure of feedback are discussed. Two psychologically opposite instructions determining attitude to inner experience were used to model direction of assessing and assessment. It was discovered that in the process of assessing inner experience feedback has a number of therapeutic effects. The finding could be used in studying therapeutic developments.
E.R. Kaliteyevskaya, D.A. Leontiev The paper suggests an approach to analyzing personality growth in terms of development of self-determination on the basis of integrating activity and self-regulation, which have different genetic origins and preconditions. A study conducted by the author has discovered in adolescence, the age critical for development of self-determination, four theoretically predictable correlations of activity and self-regulation, diversely linked to self-attitude and parent attitude, which form the basis for different personality types.
From the standpoint of historical evolutionary methodology the origin of sociality is analyzed on a larger than commonly accepted scale - as a problem of emergence and growing complexity of “life together”. This approach provides an opportunity to discover a connection between “life together” and leaps of evolution or, as A.S. Severtsov puts it, aromorphoses of complex systems. The authors argue that a leap of “life together” to a qualitatively new level leads to emergence of sociality based on communicative interactions of non-identical individuals. A universal role in development of any complex systems is played by pre-adaptation to uncertainty. According to biologistR. Goldsmith's hypothesis, the most impressive form of pre-adaptation is evolutionarily supported “hopeful freaks” (similar to “degenerates” in fantastic utopias by A. and B. Strugatskys), potentially capable of occupying new niches in case of problems unsolvable within the limits of existing adaptations.
The paper looks at the role of working memory in the effect of “misses in continued search”. The effect consists in missing thesecond target stimulus after a successful detection of the first in a visual search task. One of the theories links the effect to the fact that the detected first stimulus exhausts the resource of the working memory and thus blocks the search. In our study we used a standard working memory task which consisted in memorizing one digit (low working memory load) or six digits (high working memory load) with a subsequent report. A visual search task consisted in looking for the letters T among letters L. There might have been one or two Ts or none at all. The subjects’ task in each trial was to identify the Ts while retaining the information about the digital task in the working memory. The experiment revealed meaningful significance of the number of stimuli, but the factors of the working memory load and interference of stimuli were insignificant. Thus the degree of the effect of “misses in continued search” (the difference between percentage of correct answers in the task with two target stimuli and in the task with one target stimulus) turns out to be the same in all trials irrespective of high or low loading of the working memory. Comparison of the findings of the study with other research data allows a conclusion that the effect of misses is either not linked to working memory or is linked to another memory sub-system. The study also revealed a link between the effect of misses and the number of search stimuli, i.e. the perceptive load of the system of information processing.
The paper discuss subjectness as an individual characteristic which manifest itself in personalozation and personification as two opposite processes in personal actual genesis. An empirical study was conducted to test a hypothesis on representation of those processes in speech. The study focused on sense fields "Being a personality" (personalization) and "Being oneself" (personification). It was discovered that in men to whom personal qualities are important, the index is low and vise versa. The study also identified speech markers of personalization (the words posses, be able, insist, actions, life) and personification (the words behave, exist, try, accept, act). Speech patterns containing a negative of personification. On the basis of validization of the findings by experts speech markers of personalization and personification can be represented in the form of a categorical grid.