Thanks largely to the theory of open nonequilibrium systems by I.R. Prigogine, non-classical biology of purposeful activity by N.A. Bernstein, modernist theories and new facts, found in evolutionary biology on the border of XX and XXI centuries, “the rediscovery of time” (I. Prigogine) and the rediscovery of evolution occur. Phenomenology of non-adaptive manifestations in biology, sociology and psychology, perceived as failures and errors of evolution, are involved into their interpretation of preadaptation to unpredictable future turns from background research into a figure. Based on these facts the hypothesis of preadaptation to uncertainty as navigation strategy developing systems is substantiated. It is proved that preadaptation to uncertainty is a key instrument in the generation of the redundancy of biological, cognitive, social and psychological diversity. The process of evolution, understood as the solution to different classes of problems on the uncertainty is associated with two complementary modes of dynamics to historical changes: the mode of adaptive “trends' evolution” determining stability and specialization of species-typical and socio-typical behaviors; mode of preadaptive “evolution of a revolt”, which forms prespecialization, a universal willingness to change and rise to new life forms The hypothesis of preadaptation to uncertainty is the first step towards the formation of evolutionary psychodynamics as a hybrid branch of psychology, linking it with sciences that study the unpredictable changes in the history of man, nature and society.
The article discusses approaches to objective nontransitiveness of superiority (A is superior, more competitive than B, B - C, C - A) in several scientific areas (mathematics, biology, economics, decision-taking theory) which have turned nontransitiveness of superiority into an object of special research. The author analyzes relations between the ‘mainstream’ in a specific area and ‘dissent’ conflicting with the dominant paradigm. The author suggests two interconnected but insufficient explanations of the state of things: 1) specificity of levels of reality studied in a specific scientific area; 2) specificity of basic provisions (axioms) related not only to specificity of the reality being studied, but also to peculiarities of evolution caused by laws of sociology and psychology of scientific research. It is possible to roughly define 4 levels of complexity of non-transitiveness: a) simple combinatory nontransitiveness of non-interacting objects; b) simple interactive non-transitiveness of objects that interact without changing their quality; c) interactive non-transitiveness accompanied by qualitative transformations of objects engaged in interactions; d) rhizome non-transitiveness caused by multiple links and interactions of complex systems accompanied by qualitative transformations. The classic axiom of transitiveness of superiority (if A>B and B>C, then A>C) was based on notions of the world which, in retrospective, seem naive. Further development of science uncovered examples which, in I. Lakatos’s terms, were ‘monsters’ for theories based on the above axiom. But for other researchers objective non-transitiveness is not a monster, not an ugly duckling, but a swan caught in the net of scientific thought when it transgresses the limits of the simplistic Neutonian model of the world.
The results of the investigation of a substantive thought generating supported with intellectual operations are presented. The theoretical basis of the study is a conception of a person’s mental ability to thought generating that characterizes his/her intelligence. The proposed approach enables to describe a thinking activity as a process of generating thoughts, which constitute a content of thinking, and as a process of working with thoughts through the intellectual operations. In experimental study conducted with participants (in the sample of university students, N = 50) that were in different conditions of solving a mental task and with different level of intellectual development the composition of intellectual operations was defined, the productivity of their use in continuum of thinking activity development was shown, and the way of their practical acquisition was described. The results demonstrate that the increasing of the productivity of substantive thought generating is at the expense of abstracting and mediating. It was identified that this productivity appeared as the tendency to discern the functional properties of conceivable object by abstracting from its properties which make sense from their personal meaning for thinker as the thinking activity was developed in the beginning, and mediating these properties in the middle and at the end of this process. The important result shown in the study was the interactive effect of the conditions of mental task solving and the level of intellectual development on productivity of thinking in the end of that process. This interaction explants the specify of a certain operation use in thinking activity development and the productivity of generating a substantive thought that make personal sense for thinker subject to the level of his/her intellectual development. The findings of the study are the basis for understanding the learning to think by the acquisition of intellectual operations in solving a certain mental task.
On the basis of an own definition of fear, the authors present a hierarchical three-level typology of fears and provide a classification of children's fears. The phenomena of suggestion and countersuggestion are analyzed as psychological mechanisms of genesis and correction of suggested children's fears respectively. Game-playing therapy and art-therapy are presented as counter-suggestive techniques ensuring a child's liberation from suggested fears. For senior preschool children suffering from various suggested fears art-therapeutic exercises are a more effective correction (counter-suggestive) method than game-playing exercises.