The authors study the process of social evolution of a large post-Soviet industrial center. The city of Perm can be regarded as a typical product of socialist modernization. Perm (formerly known as Molotov since 1940 and until 1957) is a regional center, which was initially formed through an artificial unification of two separate entities. One of them was a worker settlement Motovilikha (the town of Molotovo). The other was the remnants of a former governor's town, Perm essentially, which until 1917 has been predominantly populated by smaller government officials and merchants. The construction of large factories, which has been started during the first five-year plans, and the evacuation of industrial enterprises in the years of the Second World War have led to an almost three-fold increase of Perm population. The huge agglomeration of barrack village for factory workers during 1930-1950s has almost fully absorbed and transformed the mother-settlements. The outlook and the topology of Perm were non-urban at that time. The opposition between private space and public space, which is quite typical for urban entities, has been completely absent. Almost 300 thousand of'new citizens', who came initially from rural areas, were only nominally so. The chance of becoming citizens in the most true sense of this word has become possible only with Khrushchev's 'housing revolution, i.e. the mass industrial construction of economical, yet more or less comfortable and separate apartments. Precisely in 1960-1970s there forms a single social space within the city of Perm. Due to the rigidness and the difficulty of reforming the relation between state economy and government technologies the total crash of political structure on the background of the economic collapse of the 1990s has led to a severe crisis in the city's development. The contemporary portrait of Perm urban community has been reconstructed based on sociological research and anthropological observation, which has been carried out by a group of researchers of the Chair for Cultural Science at Perm State Technical University.(RSCI:15616007)
The comparative analyses of the group mental imagery characteristics and impact factors is the main focus of the article.
This paper analyses the “shadow price” of social changes. For the first time, an attempt was made to determine the approaches to measuring this value with regard to non-market phenomena and processes, and to apply these approaches in an empirical analysis, based on a representative survey in Russia (N = 1,000) using experimental situations.Specifically, it quantitatively evaluates (1) the degree of divergence between the real and the ideal structure of the time budget of several important domains of social life; (2) the ratio of social ills to social benefits; (3) individual public welfare functions, (4) the social cost, legitimated by citizens, of reproducing two fundamental public goods: “the capacity to maintain ‘superpower’ status” and “the well-being of the future generations”. The authors introduce and operationalize the novel concept of the socially sub-optimal product of labour, i.e. the product resulting from alienated (or unwilling) labour, and conversely, the product which could potentially result from using unutilized willing labour. In doing so we support the idea of distinguishing productive and unproductive forms within both the notion of labour and the notion of leisure. Aggregated estimates of these values show the share of GDP which could be optimized due to a redistribution of the time budget of the population between the main areas of life, according to ideal social preferences.The balance of social benefits and social ills resulting from the life experiences and activities of individuals are empirically evaluated. We consider this balance, which is the sum of impacts of the social environment on the individual, as a suitable model for explaining how individuals make decisions about whether or not to participate in public life. “Individual public welfare functions” are assessed empirically, demonstrating that individual utility depends on personal and collective consumption. Empirical testing covered a wide range of nation-building areas with public investment in relevant types of merit and public goods.Then the authors propose and test on empirical data an opportunity cost approach to evaluating socially legitimate amounts of funding for the fundamental social benefits “superpower” or “additional power” of the nation.The cost of the public good “well-being of the future generations” is calculated for the Russian sample.Finally, the estimates of the discount rates of human lives and “healthy and prosperous years of life” were obtained for Russia for the first time. The findings of the study are relevant for the efficient management of complex socio-economic systems. The authors strongly believe that revealing the structure of existing social preferences and estimating their impact on various areas of social life will help improve policy making by explicitly taking into account the specifics of the real social contract between the state and society.