The article discuss the structure of virtual communities existing within the social network site «VK» from the perspective of social inequality problem and the issue of «digital divide». Analysis of the structure of online groups formed around HIV/AIDS topic shows, despite the infrastructure factors of a social media platform and consolidating nature of communities the participants’ hierarchy is based on two key resources - the attention and social capital. These resources are distributed extremely unequally according to a power law, and it leads to significant differentiation of users. Thus, social inequality appears in online communities in the form of a network inequality. From the viewpoint of «digital divide» theory the network inequality can be interpreted as a third, deeper level of the digital divide of society.
Situatedness of action and cognition makes some social theorists address to situation as a source of explanation of human behavior. However, situations themselves remain unexplained. For sociology, it is necessary to explain why and which situations appear in life and influence behavior. To make situational analysis sociologically relevant, we pay attention to task-solving situations. Here we define situations as opposing to actions (task solving) and not to actors. Task-solving is a kind of discrete and specific activity that can be referred to social functions at the societal level. A sociological study of task-solving situations implies task localization and decomposition of activities, analysis of situation structure, and description of situations and their structural features distribution. We illustrate this situational approach with an example in the sociology of science.
According to research had been taken in the UK, Europe and USA creative labor implies uncertainty and risk. However, the distribution of risk is associated with structural and institutional factors: age, gender, ethnicity, social class, a particular field of activity and so on. The main research question of this paper is how educational background influence on creative graduates career paths. In particular, the paper is based on empirical study of young artists of St. Petersburg, graduates of two different types of educational institutions, conceptualized as "classical / modern" and "contemporary". The empirical research included 15 IDI and 10 séances of participant observation. Belonging to different paradigms of visual art, two types of education develop in the young artists various competences and skills, preparing them for the realities of the relevant professional life. In particular, the basis for education in the "classical / modern" institution becomes the improvement of artistic technique by preset exercises. The "contemporary" educational institutions focus on the acquisition of competencies of immaterial artistic production: the skills of writing texts about the works, discussions of their conceptions and its relevance, history and theory of contemporary art. Research results indicate that the educational background is largely determines the starting point of the two professional artists and their methods of adapting to the art market.
The article is based on the results of qualitative interviews and analysis of documents. The authors consider conditions of the development of social anthropology curricula in Russian universities. They claim that social anthropology programs in Russia in the beginning of 1990s have been established under the conditions of competition of different agents and their ideologies. The study of a discussion on educational standards helps reconstruct institutional dynamics that have led to a crisis of university training program in social anthropology. An analytic perspective of sociology of knowledge has been used to consider such factors of this program development as legacy of intellectual traditions, ideological and bureaucratic control of higher education, conflict of agents interested in monopolization of this field. The types of educational programs have been presented that implement national standard in social anthropology in different Russian universities. The typology is based on the axes universal / local and pure / applied scholarship.
The article considers social cohesion as a theoretical concept. Drawing on the works of the classics of sociology and modern scholars, the authors reveal different semantic facets of this concept, including a commitment to the common good, or the mechanism of intergroup conflict, a mutual benefit or a resource of understanding, a strategic priority of social policy or a construct of nationalistic discourse. Each of these codes refers to certain theories that vary in their explanation of social order, conditions and mechanisms of cohesion, and to trace their connection with ideologies, doctrines and strategies of social policy. The article presents systematization of analytical approaches and suggests a number of ideas concerning the study of a variety of bases and forms of social cohesion in contemporary Russian society. Сohesion can be conceptualized in the following interrelated dimensions: firstly, as systematic efforts of the main actors, ensuring the well-being of the population and social integration by means of an institutional framework, including institutions and agencies implementing this policy in practice. Social cohesion is both the goal and the means of such policy. Secondly, it can be understood as the prevalence of values of cohesion, its symbolic production, particularly in mass media and popular culture. Third, social cohesion can be identified in the mechanisms of national and in-group mobilization, as well as the formation of the public sphere on the themes of cohesion, trust and inclusion.
The article discusses the implementation possibilities and limitations of projects on improving the quality of the urban environment proposed by civil and expert groups in St. Petersburg. The authors analyze the processes of social construction of external social and political conditions by group members, as well as the combination of resources available to them. The empirical base of the study consists of a series of semi-structured interviews (N = 14) with members of the three associations in St. Petersburg, involved in the creation and promotion of projects on the transformation of urban public spaces. The authors conclude that during the process of projects implementation the groups face multiple constraints defined by the existing structure of political opportunities. For instance, they include the following: an insufficient number of lobbyists allies; low groups’ awareness on planning programs of the city budget; constant rotation of officials who make decisions concerning urban space; legislation barriers, bureaucratic obstacles; low business interest in the projects and others. However, there are also several conditions in the favour of city projects realization, e.g.: the personification of contacts with legislative and executive authorities, the availability of professional and other groups’ resources. In the context of described socio-political conditions the groups can count on a very poor repertoire of project implementation capacities. Among these are the following: the delay of projects, which becomes the cause for a long process of their integration into targeted programs and the city budget; partial implementation; transformation or splitting a large project into parts.
The phenomenon of new domestic temporary labour migration (otkhodnichestvo) is becoming increasingly widespread in contemporary Russia. However, due to its “invisibility” it rarely becomes a target of research. The author has supplemented the available data by a comprehensive social portrait of domestic temporary labor migrants, which she formed on the basis of qualitative research (main methods being observation and interviews) in fifteen regions of Russia. The author depicts and analyzes labor migrants’ social characteristics based on 141 in-depth unstructured interviews with the migrants and their family members and 209 interviews with other local residents who provided their characterization of the migrants. The author brings to light migrants’ labor motivation and some personal features that help an individual select migration as a subsistence pattern. She provides main demographic characteristics (gender, age, educational level, health). and describes the specifics of the migrants’ labour activity (migration destinations, professional groups, and work regime), the associated economic and social state of the household (finance management, house and plot conditions, leisure) and migrants’ status in the local community. The obtained results show certain trends in the social profile of contemporary temporary migrants, which allow classifying them as a separate social type. A domestic temporary migrant is a proactive, highly motivated individual, aspiring to a decent standard of living and adaptable to strenuous labor and living conditions far away from home and family. A particular, dispersed way of living with corresponding social problems and associated material well-being distinguish the migrants from other local citizens.
The purpose of this article is to provide a descriptive analysis of the American social policy for the Vietnam War veterans. This paper includes three parts: description of protest movements and the struggle for the recognition of the Vietnam War veterans status; studying the problems and consequences of war syndrome; expertise of American legislation within the context of the Vietnam veterans social protection. The recognition of the PTSD as the illness allowed using rehabilitation programs for more effective integrating former combatants into a peaceful social environment. Measures of the combatants social support in the United States based on the implementation programs of preferential maintenance of educational needs, group life insurance, medical rehabilitation, not only owing of injuries, but also in connection with the effects of herbicides. In the USA active work is conducted on carrying out of such programs as assistance in finding co-soldiers, housing for homeless veterans of the Vietnam War, rehabilitation after returning from correctional institutions, the use of round-the-clock telephone hotline.
In accordance with the decrease in a social status, health declines dramatically — firm social inequalities are formed in a society. The article is devoted to a crucial issue in modern studies of inequalities in health. We check the hypothesis according to which a human-being’s health state depends on their parents’ status. Moreover, their own achieved position in a society can impact a health state as well. Different combitnations of individual and parents’ statuses, demonstrating upward or downward mobility or stability, can influence our health in different ways. It also contributes to strengthening or overcoming the inequalities. The analysis of status interactions in their influence on the health of the participants of European Social Study (ESS 2012, 29 countries, representative national survey) was conducted by statistic methods of two-level linear modeling. The results demonstrate that parents’ high level of education as well as respondent’s one leads to a higher estimation of their own health. The increase in educational status leads to a better health condition of people coming from various social stratums. However, this dependence can be observed better in those cases where people are brought up in secured families. In some degree parents’ high social status can resist negative effects of downward mobility on health
In this paper, striptease is considered as a special cultural scene, as well as a specific craft appearing in Russia in the 1990s. The aim was to offer an ethnographical description of the everyday life of strip-tease dancers in Russian megalopolises, both women and men. The latter are considered here as a sort of “tribe” living in their own symbolic and instrumental universe. The methodological principle “from the native’s point of view”, which we used in our research, refers to the “interpretive anthropology” by C.Geertz, although we do suggest certain caution in treating his application of “thick description” concept formulated by G.Ryle.
In the 1990s, in Russia, the transformation of moral values and institutions of the late-Soviet everyday life was effectively going on. Among other things, this process made it possible for strip-tease to emerge and to become established as an integral part of the mass entertainment industry. In the world of strip-tease, like in a drop of water, the new gender identities are reflected that are characteristic of various segments of modern Russian society, as well as the new forms of moral problematization and the new commercialization aspects concerned with the human body.