Supply chain management is based on the use of rather heterogeneous and uncertain information. The uncertainty of the market information or product gives rise to the asymmetry of information – the circumstances in which some of the participants in the transaction possess the important other participants do not have. This problem was first noted by K. Arrow in 1963. In 1970 G. Akerlof proposed a mathematical model of the market with asymmetric information. In such a market, the price of goods tends to decline even for goods with perfect quality. There are options for the development of a situation in which such a market disappears completely. The problem of asymmetric information has since been studied in relation to different markets and products, such as insurance markets, used car models and others, but the problem has been little studied in relation to supply chains. The presence of various types of uncertainty in supply chains makes it possible to apply the theory of fuzzy sets. Application of the fuzzy set theory allows to combine all kinds of information into a single whole and adequately consider it. To do this, it is necessary to provide information about the functioning of logistics systems in the form of membership functions. Using the tools of fuzzy set theory, it is possible to develop a conceptual model for overcoming information asymmetry in supply chains between different market participants, which will improve the transparency and reliability of their supply chains. When modeling the processes of overcoming information asymmetry in supply chains, it is possible both to increase and reduce the number of signs affecting the manageability of supply chains, depending on the complexity of the logistics systems. Due to this, this model can be adapted to a variety of forms of interaction between logistics and trade organizations, regardless of their size and scope of activity. Thus, this model allows to establish the degree of reliability, transparency and manageability of supply chains between their different participants and to find: ■ the best ratio of qualitative and quantitative features characterizing certain supply chains between different organizations ■ ways to reduce information asymmetry and increase information transparency depending on the values of the indicators that characterize the supply chain and choose the best one
The article is devoted to the preparation for the digital transformation of the international air cargo terminal, carried out in order to increase the volume of air cargo and mail processed at the airport at the terminal complex. The process of digital transformation is a process of reengineering. It affects all the functional components of the company, without exception, and, first of all, management. It is important to determine in advance what threats the new management brings to the company, what competitive advantages the terminal can potentially gain as a result of digital transformation, what can serve as the basis for successful reengineering, and what management, technological, and technical issues need to be paid special attention to. The article discusses the technological and organizational aspects of the cargo airport, which can serve as a potential basis for successful transformation. The authors discuss in detail the new key business processes of digital service management at the terminal of companies in the Agency and forwarding environment. We consider options for building these processes based on the integration of services of the digital platform of the cargo terminal, the principles of implementing Omni-channel digital management of the processes of organizing air cargo transportation at an international airport
Author provides the classification of logistic centers based on the following criteria: performance radius, capacity, specialization, type of ownership, rate of logistics integration (operational performance), processed goods. The common definition of logistic center is given with methodological principles of its launching. The structured algorithmical method is proposed to design logistic center in defined geographical area (local zone).
The advanced concept of control, monitoring and management of complex supply chains «Supply Chain Control Tower –SCCT» is considered. The basic terminology is given, the problematics is indicated and the key stages of the evolution of the SCCT concept are analyzed in the direction of increasing the maturity level of projects from version CT 1.0 to version CT 4.0. The shortcomings of earlier versions of the Control Tower (1.0-2.0) are analyzed. The article describes the design methodology of modern SCCT, including ensuring end-to-end visibility of the supply chain, building and exchanging data in a Multi-party Network, synthesis of a digital model – a twin of the physical supply chain; creation of information hubs for reliable storage and transmission of information using digital technologies, in particular, the blockchain. Examples of the implementation of the Control Tower 4.0 company One Network are set. The advantages of using advanced versions of Control Tower 4.0 for controlling and adaptive management of complex supply chains using predictive analytics and artificial intelligence are shown.
Recently the technology «Mutual planning, forecasting and stock replenishment» is attracting more and more attention of logisticians, marketing and strategic management specialists. The basic idea of CPFR consists of combining efforts of contactors within constructed supply chain for satisfying needs of clients by integrating basic marketing and logistic business processes. The aim of the article is to illustrate theoretical aspects of CPFR concept and its practical implementation within supply chain of producing company. In particular, the point of CPFR concept, variants of its appliance, basic advantages and disadvantages are specified. It is shown, that CPFR base is efficient organization of planning and procuring process in chain by optimizing data exchange, inventory positions management with unstable and hardly forecasted demand, establishing cooperation according to worked out standards for excluding bottlenecks and overcoming restraints when satisfying customer expectations. It is shown, how companies may define their goals and select necessary CPFR tools for their attaining.
The paper defines the role of logistics and supply chain management (SCM) as a way to raise sustainability of the company in order to eliminate economic crisis consequences and support business in this case. It is shown trends of consolidation of logistics both in business organizations and in national coverage. The importance of creating and managing knowledge base of companies’ personnel in the field of logistics and SCM as a source of sustainable competitive advantage is specified.
Taking into account the extremely limited number of qualified logisticians in the Russian labor market, it is offered the direction of additional education programs differentiation for advanced training and retraining of staff. The paper provides an example of International Center of Training in Logistics at the HSE which implements the range of programs of advanced training and retraining in logistics.
The main ways to improve the efficiency of business during the economic crisis by using tools of logistics and SCM are covered, among which are application of total costs principle; management and optimization of the inventory levels in the supply chain; development of controlling system in logistics; improvement of sustainability and reliability of supply chains, etc.�стики НИУ ВШЭ в части реализации спектра программ профессиональной переподготовки и повышения квалификации логистов
Рассмотрены основные пути повышения эффективности бизнеса компаний в условиях экономического кризиса при использовании инструментария логистики и SCM: использование принципа общих затрат; управление и оптимизация уровней запасов в цепях поставок; развитие системы контроллинга логистики; повышение надежности и устойчивости цепей поставок и др.
The article systematically covers and analyses methodological and practical problems in relation to a new specialization of “Logistics and supply chain management”. The article considers a wide range of issues connected with the main activity of logisticians and experts in supply chain management (SCM); with prestige of the profession / specialization; with opportunities of self-improvement, career development and alumni employment; as well as with supplementary post-graduate education. The article reveals advantages of using innovative (digital) technologies, information and computer-based systems and software products. The role of School of Logistics and the International Centre of Training in Logistics in establishment and development of this prospective specialization in Russia is shown.
The article examines conceptual problems of Distribution Logistics in view of realization of the «Distribution Management» function and the design of an effective logistical distribution network of a goods flow. Distribution Management demands logistics to have a constant control over the efficiency of organization of logistical processes in a distribution network. To increase efficiency of distribution network operation there should be a careful and all round assessment of the existing and perspective condition of a company’s distribution systems. The purpose of this effectiveness assessment of distribution systems of a company is to
thoroughly study the organization of logistical processes in the system, condition and operation control of a goods movement system and logistics operations costs and functions in distribution, and to reveal defects in organization, performance and control of logistical activities. The author considers interaction of logistics and adjacent company’s departments while managing distribution. Several unique algorithms of designing and reengineering of a distribution network are offered and it is shown in the case studies how they are realized.
The basic directions of use of toolkit of logistics and management of supplies chains for eliminations and preventions of the crisis phenomena in economy are considered. It is shown that integration and logistical coordination are the basic ways of economy of expenses and optimisation of stock level in supplies chains. Types of integration decisions and a commitment of optimisation of logistic business processes in supplies chains are considered.
Implementation of the construction of constantly operating automobile and Railway Bridge between the Crimea and continental of Russia will create new distribution of logistic infrastructure in the Azov sea region. In the article are investigated possibilities of logistic infrastructure and the most perspective investment projects of the Azov sea region for the purpose of an assessment of the risks, arising at possible change of chains of mixed deliveries, after a construction of the Bridge. The fulfilled analysis of the main freight traffics following now through ports of the region can become less demanded, and investment projects to lose appeal with the origin of the bridge, and it is necessary to take proposed measures for the solution of this problem.
Issues of interfunctional coordination are typical for any company irrespective of its sphere of business. However, problems of the neighboring departments coordination in course of the material flow management seem to be especially acute for the commercial companies. The reasons for that include proximity of the commercial companies to the ultimate consumer, independent demand that such organizations have to meet, ever changing customer priorities as well as active adoption of the geographical expansion strategy in the form of entering markets of different regions of Russia. Economic stagnation, fall of the solvent demand and strengthened competition amplify the issues in question.
The paper focuses on the typical causes of the interfunctional conflicts associated with logistics. These causes involve incompatibility of the neighboring organizational departments’ objectives and interests, rivalry for the resources, insufficient regulation of functional responsibilities, etc. The authors examine the notion and specifics of interfunctional logistics coordination, that can be used as a means to prevent conflicts between departments of a company. Based on the analysis of the methods of interfunctional logistics coordination, the authors propose the scheme of division of functions and authorities between departments of a commercial company when carrying out strategic tasks connected to the distribution network development. Such tasks (and potential conflict objects) embrace identification of the prospective sales regions, making decision on the effective range of goods to sell, sales volume planning in each of the identified regions, selection of the rational distribution system, development of the customer logistics service system, market segmentation and identification of the goods supply regions, elaboration of the inventory policy, calculation of the material flows in the distribution network, shaping warehouse network, choice of the delivery technologies.
In the article, the question of the organization of the mixed transportations of export freights is considered. Optimum giving of cars pays off with use of the developed model of interaction of railways transport and a warehouse from the enterprise.
The market of medical equipment presented in most cases by foreign-made goods is growing fast. It requires considering the peculiarities of logistics services under the conditions of the medical equipment utilization by medical preventive institutions. The problem is particularly acute for high-tech medical equipment sector. It is shown that the fundamental principles of the order cycle management are unchanged in the case of reverse logistics as well. However the specific material flow managed will lengthen order cycle. Moreover it will have the impact on the complexity and workload of logistics operations. The traditional definition of transactional and post transactional services, which was reflected in the choice of the set of indicators, requires a thorough application. It is especially true for the performance evaluation of services splitted in time-horizon.
Multi- and interdisciplinary nature of the supply chain management and modern logistic strategic potential define logistical context of a business model.
Some implications have been made based on the reviewed articles about logistics and business models. (1) It is evident that authors have little agreement about logistical challenges in business models that can be explained by lack of unity in understanding the business model concept. (2) Logistics and business models are interrelated. Logistics influences efficiency, results and possibilities of a business model development. Moreover, a business model defines requirements for logistics. (3) Significance of logistics in a business model is determined by the object of logistics which is an aggregate of interrelated material, information and financial flows. The system of material flows ensures management of information flows in the value chain. This in turn is a basis of fair distribution of financial results between supply chain partners.
The author uses a consolidated definition of a business model as an object that deals with assessment, creation, distribution and supply of value to the client, and also with allocation of profit collected thanks to its acknowledgement on the market. The researcher attempts to update logistics as an instrument of developing and applying a business model. It is emphasized that it has an unquestionable primary role in the chain to create, distribute and supply value to the client.
The author suggests and describes the model of a logistics business model and develops a system of indicators to evaluate and analyze logistics in a business model. The system of indicators can be used to complete two tasks. The first task is to evaluate logistical component of a business model to develop logistical strategy in a company. The second task is to analyze the results of logistical activity in the framework of a business model to understand the rationale to develop a new business model in a company.
The article covers issues of effectiveness of working capital management of a trading enterprise on the basis of the automated planning. This uses the logistic approach to the formation of a management strategy, providing the maximum win with minimal losses. To this end, they have developed a functional model of the process of planning of deliveries of the goods. Considered the analytical approach for probabilistic modeling of dynamics of movement of working capital on the basis of the simplified structure of the processes of interaction of economic agents of the company.