The paper uses data from two national household surveys conducted in 2011 and 2014 by Levado Center and compares changes in levels of out-of-pocket drug expenditures in different social groups. The study demonstrates that reinforcement of price regulation policy was not accompanied by improvement in drug availability. After economic crisis individuals with low incomes were less likely to buy pharmaceuticals; disabled decreased their average monthly spending on medicine. For majority of respondents the share of drug expenditures as percent of their per capita income has increased.
The authors conclude that the full-scale development of distributed generation should be combined with introducing Smart Grid technologies which allow having an integrated energy system provided with an intellectual management system.
This article examines the problems of the Russian public procurement system based on the analysis of assessments from a mass survey of both customers and suppliers. It is shown that despite a significant change in legislation, most of the problems that were noted by researchers and practitioners 7–8 years ago remain including price dumping, regulatory collisions and low competition in public bids. The paper analyses the differences in assessments of these problems with respect to the respondents’ experience and other factors. We also claim that one of the reasons for the lack of positive developments in the perception of procurement regulation is that the changes in the legislation were based on the interests of government agencies and did not take into account the needs and opinions of immediate participants of procurement process. On this basis we formulate proposals for conducting regular monitoring of opinions and assessments of ordinary customers and suppliers.
The article analyzes the current state of the Russian statistics. It points to the progress achieved, namely, free access to statistical data and adjustment to the market economy. Unsolved problems of the statistical methodology, usability of statistical data, and gaps in statistics are discussed.
Sociologist Alena V. Ledeneva is a specialist in informal activities. She writes exclusively about Russia and exclusively for the foreign reader. The author of publish below detailed review of Alena V. Ledeneva's last book analyses a method of study and nature of the Russian informal practices, and a phenomenon of conducting the scientific studies 'for export'.
This paper analyzes Belarus energy system, relations between Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia in the framework of the Customs Union and the Common Economic Space. The consequences of the recent political crisis in Ukraine will inevitably lead to the review of the relations between the European Union and Russia. In these new conditions, the members of the Common Economic Space of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia must develop a new concept of energy security. This new concept should allow to decrease substantially the influence of the export of hydrocarbons on the economic development of abovementioned countries, thus increasing the competitiveness of their national economies. As a first measure, the members of the Eurasian Union should create the single energy market
Abstract. Otkhodniks are the self-name of Russian internal temporary work migrants. They commonly are seasonal workers, but they are different from seasonal agricultural workers, as well as from circulatory migrants and gastarbeiters. A lot of them are small business entrepreneurs. But, they are mostly hired workers. The key attributes of the otkhodniks are following. They live permanently in the villages and small towns, but they seek work in the capitals (Moscow and St. Petersburg), or in industrial centers in the North and in Siberia. These people do not want to change their place of permanent residence in order to move closer to the working place. The main labor motivation of migrant workers is to increase the family’s welfare. Otkhodniks have the basic life motivations - independence, initiative, self-activity.
In this paper I briefly reviewed the 5-century history of Russian otkhodnichestvo. I have identified the main causes of this type of migration in the imperial period (XVII-XX century) and in our time over the past 30 years. I also identified factors that stimulate or suppress the migration activity of provincial residents. I have the author's estimates of the otkhodniks’s current number presented, and compared them with the estimates of other authors for the XVII – XX centuries. This allowed me to describe the secular dynamics. I have also estimates of the otkhodniks’s structure of employment from the 1990s provided. The evolution of modern working migration has been described. The most important features of the evolution are dynamism, variability and expansion. Seasonal migrants-otkhodniks, are a new class in Russia – the precariat.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter