A volume on perfect in World Englishes and diachronical corpora reviewed. In the articles included in the collection both new language material and new techniques are used. The new material are the regional varieties of English, the so-called “World Englishes”, which sometimes differ quite significantly in the use of perfect forms (“Present Perfect friendliness”) and their semantics (as noted by researchers earlier)
The present work is dedicated to the role of gestures in overcoming lexical access problems in patients with motor aphasia. The study is based on a corpus of narratives by brain-damaged individuals – «Russian CliPS» (Clinical Pear Stories), the videos from which were annotated in the linguistic annotator «ELAN», with the gestural layout included in the analysis. The results suggest that most often the difficulties with lexical access were related to the search for nouns and verbs, and gestures (deictic and rhythmic gestures, beats) facilitated lexical access in patients.
The paper describes Russian constructions with the markers of immediate past tol’ko, tol’ko-tol’ko, and tol’ko čto, such as On tol’ko / tol’ko-tol’ko / tol’ko čto prišel ‘He has just come’, and their relations with the resultative semantics. The main question posed in the article is whether the use of the three markers under analysis presupposes that the result of the situation persists at the moment of speech. I show that the meaning of immediate past does not necessarily correlate with the resultative meaning. The meaning of some immediate past constructions can contain the resultative component, while others lack it. In Russian, the markers tol’ko and tol’ko-tol’ko are tightly connected with the resultative meaning, while the marker tol’ko čto does not require either the presence or the absence of the result. The connection of tol’ko and tol’kotol’ko with resultative contexts follows from their semantics and discourse properties, which are also addressed in the paper.
The paper discusses two related aspectological topics. First section examines the ‘completive’ — i. e. ‘attainment of the internal limit’ — meaning (together with its counterpart ‘incompletive’, i. e. ‘non-attainment of the internal limit’). Its localization in the semantic structure of the utterance is determined: between aspect proper and actionality proper. Also, ‘completive’ can be included under the semantic scope of an iterative operator. It is argued that ‘completive’ is contained as a fixed component in the semantics of some Russian Imperfective verbs such as sgorat’ ‘burn (down)’ and pročityvat’ ‘read (through)’. Second section demonstrates practical possibility and the advantages of a single-verb approach to actional classification in Russian, an approach which is not based on the notion of aspectual pairs. Actional properties are ascribed separately to single Perfective and Imperfective verbs on the basis of uniform tests. The efficiency of the approach is demonstrated on a pilot sample of Perfective and Imperfective verbs.
The article analyzes archaic syntactic constructions in colloquial Russian when a noun in genitive appears as the direct object of a transitive verb (such as dat’ noža, etc.). The connection of such genitival constructions with the semantics of partitivity is demonstrated. The author concentrates on the origin and semantics of the approving or encouraging exclamation molodca! in the Russian spoken language. According to the author, it is a former genitive form of the direct object related to a verb of utterance (verbum dicendi), i. e. a part of a construction similar to such phrases as skazat’ duraka or pustit’ petuxa.
The paper explores the space of semantic and formal variability of pluperfect constructions in Slavic against a wider typological background; the areal context is also addressed. The study is based both on parallel corpora and typological questionnaires. Keywords: grammar typology, pluperfect, polysemy,
This paper is an overview of the current issues and tendencies in Computational linguistics. The overview is based on the materials of the conference on computational linguistics COLING’2012. The modern approaches to the traditional NLP domains such as pos-tagging, syntactic parsing, machine translation are discussed. The highlights of automated information extraction, such as fact extraction, opinion mining are also in focus. The main tendency of modern technologies in Computational linguistics is to accumulate the higher level of linguistic analysis (discourse analysis, cognitive modeling) in the models and to combine machine learning technologies with the algorithmic methods on the basis of deep expert linguistic knowledge.
The paper discusses a kind of relative constructions without dedicated markers of subordination. The author focuses on the problems related to their differentiation from other patterns, the grammatical means that may imply subordination without expressing it directly and touches upon the diachronic issues concerning unmarked relatives.